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Bibliotek över vetenskapliga artiklar i vilka COPSOQ ingår

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Selected articles: 0

Work environment of Danish shift and day workers

Bøggild, H., Burr, H., Tüchsen, F. & Jeppesen, H.J.

Abstract

Objectives: Both shift work and other work environment factors have been shown to be related to heart disease. This study examined whether shift work is associated with other work environment factors related to heart disease in a random sample of the population. If so, shift work could be acting as a proxy for work environment differences. Methods: Data on 5940 employees in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study from 1990 were reanalyzed. The information included work schedules [permanent day work, irregular workhours (including morning work), 2-shift or fixed evening and 3-shift or fixed night], length of workweek, physical factors (noise, heat, dust, passive smoking, walking, standing and monotonous repetitive tasks), and psychosocial factors (including demands and control dimensions, social support, conflicts and job insecurity). Results: At least 1 group of shift workers had a higher prevalence of nearly every unfavorable work environment factor investigated. Exceptions were dust exposure and quantitative demands. Especially conflicts at work and low decision latitude were higher among all the groups of shift workers, and all-day walking or standing work and part-time jobs were more often found among female shift workers. The 3 different shiftwork groups were exposed to different parts of the work environment, and also men and women in shift work differed in relation to the work environment. Age and social class influenced the relationship, but not in any particular pattern. Conclusions: In a heterogenous population shift work was found to be associated with other work environment factors suspected to cause heart disease.

Year

2001

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Shift workers

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.595

Reference

Bøggild, H., Burr, H., Tüchsen, F. & Jeppesen, H.J. (2001). Work environment of Danish shift and day workers. Scandinavian Journal Work Environment & Health, 27 (2), S. 97–105..

Socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment: results from a Danish national study

Kristensen, T. S., Borg, V., Hannerz, H.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between socioeconomic status (SES ) and a number of psychosocial work environment factors with a potential impact on inequality in health. Methods: A representative sample of 1,684 adult Danish employees filled in a standardized questionnaire or were interviewed by telephone. The response rate was 62%. The population was divided into four levels of SES (I to IV ). The psychosocial work environment was described with 19 scales. Results: Quantitative, cognitive, and emotional job demands and a number of dimensions related to active and developmental work showed higher levels among high SES individuals. Job insecurity was highest among women with low SES. Dimensions describing interpersonal relations, social support, and leadership showed no clear associations with SES. Conclusions: Prevention aiming at improving health and reducing inequality in health should focus on the dimensions of active and developmental work: influence at work, possibilities for development, degrees of freedom, and meaning of work. Furthermore, job insecurity should be reduced.

Year

2002

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

Reference

Kristensen, T. S., Borg, V., Hannerz, H. (2002). Socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment: results from a Danish national study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health., Supplement 59, S. 41–48.

The distinction between work pace and working hours in the measurement of quantitative demands at work

Kristensen, T. S., Bjorner, J. B., Christensen, K. B., Borg, V.

Abstract

During recent years many researchers have criticized the widely used scales on psychological job demands. For instance, they comment that in most cases different types of demand seem to be mixed in one measure. In this paper we analyse the scale on quantitative job demands in the recently developed Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), with special emphasis on Differential Item Functioning (DIF). DIF refers to basic differences between groups of respondents, which may affect how they respond to questionnaire items. The data material for our study comprised a representative sample of Danish employees. The respondents were categorized into 32 specific jobs according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 1968). We analysed DIF with respect to the respondents’ jobs with logistic regression analyses. These analyses showed that the items used in the original demand scale functioned very differently for different jobs in the population. The conclusion is that scales on quantitative demands are very sensitive to the choice of specific items. If many items on fast work pace and tempo are included in a scale, a number of blue-collar jobs will be identified as high-demand jobs. If, on the other hand, many questions on long working hours and overtime are included, the use of the scale will result in an entirely different picture. This issue has so far received little attention in occupational health psychology. The results have wide theoretical and methodological implications for research on quantitative job demands.

Year

2004

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1080/02678370412331314005

Reference

Kristensen, T. S., Bjorner, J. B., Christensen, K. B., Borg, V. (2004). The distinction between work pace and working hours in the measurement of quantitative demands at work. Work & Stress, 18 (4), S. 305–322.

Is sense of coherence a mediator or moderator of relationships between violence at work and stress reactions?

Hogh, A., Mikkelsen, E. G.

Abstract

The relationships between exposure to violence at work, sense of coherence, and stress reactions were analysed in a large sample of the Danish workforce. The results showed that employees subjected to violence have a weaker sense of coherence than the rest of the respondents. Sense of coherence acted as a mediator and not as a moderator of relationships between exposure to violence and psychological, psychosomatic and cognitive stress reactions. The stability of the sense of coherence construct is discussed. With respect to the relation between sense of coherence and violence, preventative measures at the individual and organizational level are suggested.

Year

2005

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00474.x

Reference

Hogh, A., Mikkelsen, E. G. (2005). Is sense of coherence a mediator or moderator of relationships between violence at work and stress reactions?. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46 (5), S. 429–437.

The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire--a tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment

Kristensen, T. S., Hannerz, H., Hogh, A., Borg, V.,

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this article is to present the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), a questionnaire developed in three different lengths for assessing psychosocial factors at work, stress, and the well-being of employees and some personality factors. The purpose of the COPSOQ concept is to improve and facilitate research, as well as practical interventions at workplaces. Methods: The development of the questionnaire was based on a survey of a representative sample of 1858 Danish employees aged 20-59 years. The response rate was 62%; 49% were women. Altogether 145 questions from some international and Danish questionnaires and 20 self-developed questions were tested with factor analyses, analyses of internal reliability, and analyses of response patterns. Results: The analyses resulted in a long research version of the questionnaire with 141 questions and 30 dimensions, a medium-length version for work environment professionals with 95 questions and 26 dimensions, and a short version for workplaces with 44 questions and 8 dimensions. Most of the scales have good reliability, and there seems to be very little overlap between the scales. A novel feature of the COPSOQ is the development of five different scales on demands at work. Conclusions: The COPSOQ concept is a valid and reliable tool for workplace surveys, analytic research, interventions, and international comparisons. The questionnaire seems to be comprehensive and to include most of the relevant dimensions according to several important theories on psychosocial factors at work. The three versions facilitate communication between researchers, work environment professionals, and workplaces.

Year

2005

Study type

Validation

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

Reference

Kristensen, T. S., Hannerz, H., Hogh, A., Borg, V., (2005). The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire--a tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 31 (6), S. 438–449.

Psychosocial work environment exposures as risk factors for long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: results from DWECS/DREAM

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Christensen, K. B., Bultmann, U., Villadsen, E., Burr, H.

Abstract

Objective: This study examines effects of psychosocial risk factors on long-term sickness absence, and investigates possible interactions between psychosocial and physical work environment risk factors. Methods: A total of 5,357 employees were interviewed in 2000 regarding work environment and followed up during the proceeding 1.5 years regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Results: Long-term sickness absence among female employees was associated with role conflict, low reward, and poor management quality. Demands for hiding emotions and high emotional demands predicted long-term sickness absence among men. No significant interactions between psychosocial and physical exposures were found for female or male employees. Conclusions: The study suggests a potential for reducing long-term sickness absence through interventions targeted toward reducing role conflict, and improving reward and management quality among female employees, and through reducing emotional demands and demands for hiding emotions among male employees.

Year

2005

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

Reference

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Christensen, K. B., Bultmann, U., Villadsen, E., Burr, H. (2005). Psychosocial work environment exposures as risk factors for long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: results from DWECS/DREAM. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 47 (11), S. 1141–1147.

Who retires early and why? Determinants of early retirement pension among Danish employees 57–62 years

Lund, T., Villadsen, E.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics and occupational determinants of transition from employment to voluntary early retirement pension (ERP). A questionnaire-based survey among 365 employees in Denmark 57–62years was performed in 2000, with a register-based follow-up 4years later. Early retirement was associated with increasing age, and lower socioeconomic position. There were weak associations between gender and ERP. Low skill discretion, high conflict in work and two measures of uncomfortable work positions significantly increased the risk of ERP. The study shows that more than half of the eligible population makes use of voluntary ERP, and further indicates a potential for reducing the amount of older employees utilizing this labour market exit option through reducing certain physical and psychosocial exposures in the work environment, independent of age, gender, and socioeconomic position.

Year

2005

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s10433-005-0013-x

Reference

Lund, T., Villadsen, E. (2005). Who retires early and why? Determinants of early retirement pension among Danish employees 57–62 years. Eur J Ageing, 2 (4), S. 275–280.

Burnout among employees in human service work: design and baseline findings of the PUMA study

Borritz, M., Rugulies, R., Bjorner, J. B., Villadsen, E., Mikkelsen, O. A., Kristensen, T. S.

Abstract

Objective: To identify predictors of burnout syndrome among workers in the public sector. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 879 municipal civil servants in a city of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. In order to measure the demographic variables and related characteristics of work we used a questionnaire developed for this purpose.The perception of the work environment was measured by the Work Atmosphere Scale. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to assess burnout syndrome. Three multiple stepwise linear regression tests were performed, in which each dimension of the syndrome was considered outcome while the other variables were estimated as predictors, adjusted for gender and age. Results: The variables related to perceptions of work environment were the ones which most contributed to the occurrence of burnout. Perceiving work as stressful and the presence of people who negatively affect the work environment contributed to the explanatory model of the three dimensions. There were nine variables which comprised a predictive model which explained 43% of Emotional Exhaustion. The variable 'perceives how stressful the job appeared to be' had the highest explanatory power. In Despersonalization, eight variables comprised 25% of the model and, once again, 'perceives how stressful the job appeared to be' was the variable with the highest explanatory power. 'Low Professional Fulfillment' revealed a set of variables with an explanatory power of 20%; a working environment considered to be good showed a higher weighting, showing it to be inversely associated. Conclusions: Public servants' perceptions of their work environment play an important role as a predictor of burnout. Viewing work as stressful and the presence of people who negatively affect the environment proved to be the elements of greatest importance.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Brazil

Occupations

Human service work

DOI

10.1080/14034940510032275

Reference

Borritz, M., Rugulies, R., Bjorner, J. B., Villadsen, E., Mikkelsen, O. A., Kristensen, T. S. (2006). Burnout among employees in human service work: design and baseline findings of the PUMA study. Scandinavian journal of public health, 34 (1), S. 49–58.

Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Christensen, K. B., Bultmann, U., Villadsen, E.

Abstract

Objectives: To examine the effects of physical work environment on long term sickness absence and to investigate interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors. Design and setting: Prospective cohort study of long term sickness absence among employees in Denmark. Participants 5357 employees interviewed in 2000 about their physical work environment, and various covariates were followed for 18 months in a national sickness absence register. Outcome measurements: Cox regression analysis was performed to assess risk estimates for physical risk factors in the work environment and onset of long term sickness absence, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for eight consecutive weeks or more. Results: 348 participants (6.9%) developed long term sickness absence during follow-up. Of these, 194 (55.7%) were women and 154 (44.3%) were men. For both female and male employees, risk of onset of long term sickness absence was increased by extreme bending or twisting of the neck or back, working mainly standing or squatting, lifting or carrying loads, and pushing or pulling loads. Significant interactions were found for three combinations of physical and psychosocial work environment risk factors among female employees (P<0.05). Conclusion: Uncomfortable working positions, lifting or carrying loads, and pushing or pulling loads increased the risk of onset of long term sickness absence. The study shows a potential for reducing long term sickness absence through modifying work postures straining the neck and back, reducing the risk of work done standing or walking, and reducing the risk associated with handling loads. Dealing with psychosocial stressors simultaneously may improve physical intervention efforts further for female employees.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/bmj.38731.622975.3A

Reference

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Christensen, K. B., Bultmann, U., Villadsen, E. (2006). Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 332 (7539), S. 449–452.

Success or failure? Interpreting and understanding the impact of interventions in four similar worksites

Nielsen, K., Fredslund, H., Christensen, K. B., Albertsen, K.

Abstract

While many studies of interventions have focused on their content and immediate effects, less research has focused on the processes that may explain these effects. The purpose of this study was to show how process evaluation can be used to interpret the results of an intervention study in four industrial canteens in Denmark. Two canteens acted as intervention groups and two as comparison groups. Effects were measured by surveys before and after interventions, and observations and interviews were conducted to provide an in-depth understanding of processes. Analyses were conducted based on the responses from 118 employees. Results showed, contrary to expectations, improvements in working conditions and well-being in one intervention group and in one comparison group, whereas no improvements were found in the two remaining groups. Data from the process evaluation enabled a meaningful interpretation of these results, raising the possibility programme failure rather than theory failure, and thereby constituting an example of how process evaluation can shed light over the factors that may influence outcomes in controlled intervention studies.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Industrial canteen workers

DOI

10.1080/02678370601022688

Reference

Nielsen, K., Fredslund, H., Christensen, K. B., Albertsen, K. (2006). Success or failure? Interpreting and understanding the impact of interventions in four similar worksites. Work & Stress, 20 (3), S. 272–287.

Measuring psychological stress and strain at work - Evaluation of the COPSOQ Questionnaire in Germany

Nübling, M., Stößel, U., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Michaelis, M., Hofmann, F.

Abstract

The undisputed increase of the relevance of mental work load is confronted with a lack of qualified or at least well documented measuring instruments covering all important aspects. The COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire), a comprehensive instrument for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work, was tested in a partly modified version in a large German sample (N = 2561 employees). The aims of the study were the detailed investigation of the psychometric measurement properties, and based on these results, the development of an abbreviated version of the instrument. The analysis of objectivity, acceptance, practicability, sensitivity and content validity of the questionnaire as a whole did not show any problematic results – with some limitations regarding the length of the questionnaire. The assessment of the reliability, generalisability, construct validity, criterion validity and diagnostic power of the single scales showed medium to good measuring qualities for the majority of the scales (i.e. Cronbach’s alpha mostly >0.7). In addition, the psychometric properties were very similar to those in the Danish COPSOQ-study. Considering all aspects of the measurement quality, a shortened version of the instrument was created. It attempts to combine measuring qualities as high as possible with a number of questions as low as possible. The German COPSOQ questionnaire is a free screening-instrument for the recording of psychosocial work load and strain for all enterprises and organisations interested. The next step is the construction of a "job exposure matrix" for psychosocial factors at work, that means a central database with work load profiles and reference values for as many occupational groups as possible.

Year

2006

Study type

Validation

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

Reference

Nübling, M., Stößel, U., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Michaelis, M., Hofmann, F. (2006). Measuring psychological stress and strain at work - Evaluation of the COPSOQ Questionnaire in Germany. Psycho-social medicine, 3, 1-14.

Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices

Pejtersen, J., Allermann, L., Kristensen, T. S., Poulsen, O. M.

Abstract

To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open-plan offices, whereas eight buildings had a mixture of cellular, multi-person and open-plan offices. A total of 2301 occupants, corresponding to a response rate of 72%, completed a retrospective questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised questions concerning environmental perceptions, mucous membrane irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Office workers

DOI

10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00444.x

Reference

Pejtersen, J., Allermann, L., Kristensen, T. S., Poulsen, O. M. (2006). Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices. Indoor air, 16 (5), S. 392–401.

Psychosocial work environment and incidence of severe depressive symptoms: prospective findings from a 5-year follow-up of the Danish work environment cohort study

Rugulies, R., Bultmann, U., Aust, B., Burr, H.

Abstract

The authors analyzed the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on the incidence of severe depressive symptoms among 4,133 (49% women) employees from a representative sample of the Danish workforce between 1995 and 2000. Psychosocial work characteristics at baseline included quantitative demands, influence at work, possibilities for development, social support from supervisors and coworkers, and job insecurity. Severe depressive symptoms were measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, with a cutoff point of 52. Women with low influence at work (relative risk (RR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 3.82) and low supervisor support (RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.43) were at increased risk for severe depressive symptoms after exclusion of cases at baseline and adjustment for sociodemographic factors, baseline depression score, and health behaviors. Further adjustments for socioeconomic position did not change the result substantially. Additional analyses showed that a one-standard deviation increase on the influence scale resulted in a 27% decreased risk of severe depressive symptoms. Among men, job insecurity predicted severe depressive symptoms (RR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.07). The findings indicate that the work environment influences the risk of developing severe depressive symptoms and that different factors play a role for men and women.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/aje/kwj119

Reference

Rugulies, R., Bultmann, U., Aust, B., Burr, H. (2006). Psychosocial work environment and incidence of severe depressive symptoms: prospective findings from a 5-year follow-up of the Danish work environment cohort study. American journal of epidemiology, 163 (10), S. 877–887.

Comparative assessment of study groups of elderly female computer users from four European countries: questionnaires used in the NEW study

Sandsjo, L., Larsman, P., Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M. R., Laubli, T., Juul-Kristensen, B., Klipstein, A. et al.

Abstract

There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires for the screening of musculoskeletal status and the studies of factors that are believed to affect musculoskeletal health. The questionnaires have been used among elderly women (45+) in different occupations and organisations in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. The aim of this short communication is to present the questionnaires used in the NEW study and to evaluate the appropriateness of pooling data gathered in each participating country into a common database. It is concluded that although differences exist among the study samples, these are not of such a magnitude or pattern that data from the four groups cannot be pooled. The questionnaires are available in Danish, Dutch, English, German and Swedish.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00421-005-0041-4

Reference

Sandsjo, L., Larsman, P., Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M. R., Laubli, T., Juul-Kristensen, B., Klipstein, A. et al. (2006). Comparative assessment of study groups of elderly female computer users from four European countries: questionnaires used in the NEW study. European journal of applied physiology, 96 (2), S. 122–126.

Work related violence and threats and the risk of depression and stress disorders

Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P. B., Burr, H., Tuchsen, F., Bonde, J. P.

Abstract

Objective: To examine the risk of depression and stress related disorders as a function of occupational exposure to violence and threats. Design: Population based nested case-control study. Setting: All gainfully employed Danes. Cases and controls: 14 166 hospital inpatients and outpatients, aged 18–65, treated for affective or stress related disorders during 1995–1998 selected from The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and 58 060 controls matched for age, sex, and time, drawn from Statistics Denmark’s Integrated Database for Labour Market Research. Main outcome measure: Clinical psychiatric diagnosis (WHO ICD-10) of affective (F30–39) or stress related (F40–48) disorders compared with controls by the occupation held the year before treatment. The occupation held the year before treatment was used as exposure proxy. Results: Potential exposure to occupational violence is associated with significantly increased relative risks of both disorders in either sex (women: depression RR 1.45 CI 1.27 to 1.65, stress RR 1.32 CI 1.19 to 1.46; men: depression RR 1.48 CI 1.18 to 1.86, stress RR 1.55 CI 1.29 to 1.84). Work related threats are associated with increase in the risk of depression in women (RR 1.48 CI 1.23 to 1.79) and the risk of stress related disorders in men (RR 1.59 CI 1.32 to 1.91). Risks rose with increasing prevalence of violence and threats. The results remain significant and only slightly attenuated after controlling for extent of professional contact with people other than colleagues. Conclusions: Employment in occupations involving exposure to work related threats and violence is a risk factor for depression and stress related disorders in both sexes. These findings have implications for health and safety at work policies.

Year

2006

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/jech.2005.042986

Reference

Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P. B., Burr, H., Tuchsen, F., Bonde, J. P. (2006). Work related violence and threats and the risk of depression and stress disorders. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 60 (9), S. 771–775.

Psychosocial work environment of hospital workers: validation of a comprehensive assessment scale

Aust, B., Rugulies, R., Skakon, J., Scherzer, T., Jensen, C.

Abstract

Background: Studies have shown that adverse workplace factors can increase the risk of ill-health in hospital workers, but more comprehensive measures of the psychosocial work environment are needed. Objectives: To test a comprehensive and theory-based psychosocial work environment questionnaire and analyze associations with mental health in a sample of Danish hospital workers. Design and participants: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study with 343 female employees from a large Danish hospital, including patient care workers (nurses, nurse assistants, midwives) and laboratory technicians. Methods: The psychosocial work environment was measured with 14 scales from the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, version I, covering three main areas: demands at work, work organization and interpersonal relations at work. We further measured self-rated mental health and sociodemographic and employment characteristics of the participants. Cronbach's alphas, analyses of covariance, one-sample t-tests, partial correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze data. Results: Of the 14 work psychosocial workplace scales 12 showed a satisfactory internal consistency (α>0.70). Patient care workers had more quantitative, emotional and cognitive demands (all p-values <0.001), higher work pace (Math Eq) and more role conflicts (Math Eq) than laboratory technicians, but also better work organization, including more influence at work, better possibilities for development and a higher meaning of work (all p-values <0.001). Both patient care workers and laboratory technicians had substantially higher scores on the demand scales and lower scores on the influence at work scale than the general Danish working population. Further analyses showed that high levels of demands at work and low levels of work organization and problematic interpersonal relations at work were associated with lower self-rated mental health. Conclusion: The Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire is a suitable instrument to measure the psychosocial work environment of hospital workers. The comprehensive assessment of the psychosocial work environment helps tailoring interventions to the specific needs of different occupational groups.

Year

2007

Study type

Validation

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.01.008

Reference

Aust, B., Rugulies, R., Skakon, J., Scherzer, T., Jensen, C. (2007). Psychosocial work environment of hospital workers: validation of a comprehensive assessment scale. International journal of nursing studies, 44 (5), S. 814–825.

The fraction of long-term sickness absence attributable to work environmental factors: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

Christensen, K.B., Lund, T., Labriola, M., Villadsen, E. & Bultmann, U.

Abstract

Objective: To examine the fraction of long-term sickness absence periods attributable to physical and psychosocial work environmental risk factors. Method: A random population sample was followed for 18 months in a national register of social transfer payments. Mutually adjusted hazard ratios for onset of long-term sickness absence and aetiological fractions were computed. Results: After mutual adjustment, no significant effect of psychosocial work environment factors remained. In men, 23% and 28% of long-term sickness absence were attributable to working mainly standing or squatting, and lifting or carrying loads, respectively. In women, 27% of long-term sickness absence was attributable to bending or twisting of the neck or back. Conclusions: Physical work environment exposures explained between 10% and 30% of long-term sickness absence. The potential for reducing long-term sickness absence is substantial.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/oem.2006.028563

Reference

Christensen, K.B., Lund, T., Labriola, M., Villadsen, E. & Bultmann, U. (2007). The fraction of long-term sickness absence attributable to work environmental factors: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study. Occupational and environmental medicine, 64 (7), S. 487–489.

The impact of social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors upon intent to leave among European nurses

Estryn-Behar, M., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Oginska, H., Camerino, D., Le Nezet, O., Conway, P. M. et al.

Abstract

Objectives: Europe's nursing shortage calls for more effective ways to recruit and retain nurses. This contribution aims to clarify whether and how social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors are associated with nurses' intent to leave (ITL). Methods: Our sample comprises 28,561 hospital-based nurses from 10 European countries. Different occupational levels have been taken into account: qualified registered nurses (n = 18,594), specialized nurses (n = 3957), head nurses (n = 3256), and nursing aides and ancillary staff (n = 2754). Results: Our outcomes indicate that ITL is quite prevalent across Europe, although we have found some differences across the countries depending on working conditions and economic situation. Quality of teamwork, interpersonal relationships, career development possibilities, uncertainty regarding treatment, and influence at work are associated with nurses' decision to leave the profession across Europe, notwithstanding some country-specific outcomes. A serious lack of quality of teamwork seems to be associated with a 5-fold risk of ITL in 7 countries. As far as personal factors are concerned, our data support the hypothesized importance of work-family conflicts, satisfaction with pay, and burnout. A high burnout score seems to be associated with 3 times the risk of ITL in 5 countries. Conclusions: To prevent premature leaving, it is important to expand nurses' expertise, to improve working processes through collaboration and multidisciplinary teamwork, and to develop team training approaches and ward design facilitating teamwork.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1097/MLR.0b013e31806728d8

Reference

Estryn-Behar, M., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Oginska, H., Camerino, D., Le Nezet, O., Conway, P. M. et al. (2007). The impact of social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors upon intent to leave among European nurses. Medical care, 45 (10), S. 939–950.

Predictors of health related job loss: a two-year follow-up study in a general working population

Haahr, J.P.L., Frost, P., Andersen, J.H.

Abstract

Introduction: Job loss may be attributed to a number of causes. The medical profession is often involved in counselling or case work when citizens are excluded from work for health reasons. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of health related job loss (HRJL) in a cohort of Danish employees. Methods: A total of 39 workplaces with 5,604 employees aged from 18 to 67 years participated. Questionnaires were obtained at baseline and follow up. Participants reported reason for job loss whilst employers' information provided the date. Hazard Ratios (HR) for HRJL with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were analysed. Results: 4006 responses were obtained at baseline (71.5%), and 3,276 (81.8%) at follow up. About 567 (17.3%) had lost their job, and 135 (23.8%) reported HRJL. 51.5% of HRJL was related to pain, disease, or discomfort in the neck, the back, arms, or legs, and another 23% to stress or stress related symptoms. HRJL involved low reemployment rate compared to non-HRJL. After multiple mutual adjustments, HRJL among females was associated with reports of a work compensation claim within the year previous to baseline (HR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.1), high level of health anxiety (3.7; 2.1-6.6), one or more contacts to the general practitioner in the year previous to baseline (2.2;1.4-3.6), and reported poor leadership quality at work (1.8;1.2-2.9). Among males, HRJL was associated with high levels of health anxiety (2.5; 1.0-6.2) and repetitive work (2.7; 1.4-5.4). Conclusion: About 4% of employees experienced HRJL, which was associated with care seeking and high levels of health anxiety. Further studies of gender differences in HRJL are warranted

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s10926-007-9106-z

Reference

Haahr, J.P.L., Frost, P., Andersen, J.H. (2007). Predictors of health related job loss: a two-year follow-up study in a general working population. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 17 (4), S. 581–592.

Who is at risk for long-term sickness absence? A prospective cohort study of Danish employees

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Villadsen, E.

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify who is at risk for long-term sickness absence according to occupation, gender, education, age, business sector, agency size and ownership. Methods: The study is based on a sample of 5357 employees aged 18-69, interviewed in 2000. The cohort was followed up in a national register from January 1st 2001 to June 30th 2003, to identify cases with sickness absences that exceeded 8 weeks. Results: During follow-up 486 persons (9.1%) experienced one or more periods of absence that exceeded 8 weeks. Higher risk of long-term sickness absence was associated with gender, age, educational level, and the municipal employment sector. Kindergarten teachers and people employed in day care, health care, janitorial work, food preparation, and unskilled workers were at greatest risk. Managers, computer professionals, technicians and designers, and professionals had lower risks. The health care and social service sectors were also in the high risk category, whereas the private administration sector had a lower risk. Conclusions: The study identifies specific occupational target populations and documents the need to perform job-specific research and tailor interventions if the intended policy of decreasing long-term sickness absence within the Danish labour market is to be realized.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

Reference

Lund, T., Labriola, M., Villadsen, E. (2007). Who is at risk for long-term sickness absence? A prospective cohort study of Danish employees. Work (Reading, Mass.), 28 (3), S. 225–230.

Working in small enterprises – Is there a special risk?

Sørensen, O. H., Hasle, P., Bach, E.

Abstract

Ownership structure is an important factor. For independent enterprises, the ergonomic, physical and chemical work environment is more hazardous in small enterprises than in large ones. For enterprises that are part of a larger organization, the work environment tends to be more hazardous in large enterprises when controlling for the same factors. For the psychosocial factors, the trend is different – better in small than in large enterprises independent of ownership. In all enterprises, both public and private, the quality of health and safety management systems and workplace assessment is remarkably higher in large than in small enterprises. These differences in work environment for small and large enterprises have been studied in the ‘Danish Work Environment Cohort Study’ and ‘Surveillance of health and safety activities in enterprises’. These datasets are linked together to a reliable database with data on work environment and enterprises including size, ownership structure, and health and safety management.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.005

Reference

Sørensen, O. H., Hasle, P., Bach, E. (2007). Working in small enterprises – Is there a special risk?. Safety Science, 45 (10), S. 1044–1059.

Organizational configuration of hospitals succeeding in attracting and retaining nurses

Stordeur, S., D'Hoore, W.

Abstract

Aim: This paper contrasts structural and managerial characteristics of low- and high-turnover hospitals, and describes the organizational configuration of attractive hospitals. Background: In countries facing nurse shortages and turnover, some hospitals succeed in recruiting and retaining nurses. In Magnet Hospitals, managerial practices and environmental characteristics increase nurses’ job satisfaction and their commitment to the organization, which in turn decreases nurse turnover. Such an approach suggests that organizations are best understood as clusters of interconnected structures and practices, i.e. organizational configurations rather than entities whose components can be understood in isolation. Method: From a sample of 12 hospitals whose nurse turnover was studied for 1 year, structural and organizational features of hospitals in the first and fourth quartiles, i.e. attractive (turnover <3·1%) vs. conventional (turnover >11·8%) were contrasted. A questionnaire, including perceptions of health-related factors, job demands, stressors, work schedules, organizational climate, and work adjustments antecedent to turnover, was received from 401 nurses working in attractive hospitals (response rate = 53·8%) and 774 nurses in conventional hospitals (response rate = 54·5%). Findings: Structural characteristics did not differentiate attractive and conventional hospitals, but employee perceptions towards the organization differed strikingly. Differences were observed for risk exposure, emotional demands, role ambiguity and conflicts, work-family conflicts, effort-reward imbalance and the meaning of work, all in favour of attractive hospitals (P < 0·001). Relationships with nursing management, work ability and satisfaction with working time, handover shifts and schedules were also better in attractive hospitals (P < 0·001). Job satisfaction and commitment were higher in attractive hospitals, whereas burnout and intention to leave were lower (P < 0·001). Conclusion: Organizational characteristics are key factors in nurse attraction and retention. Nurses face difficulties in their work situations, but some hospitals are perceived as healthy organizations. The concept of attractive institutions could serve as a catalyst for improvement in nurses’ work environments in Europe.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04095.x

Reference

Stordeur, S., D'Hoore, W. (2007). Organizational configuration of hospitals succeeding in attracting and retaining nurses. Journal of advanced nursing, 57 (1), S. 45–58.

Types of psychosocial job demands and adverse events due to dental mismanagement: a cross sectional study

Tsutsumi, A., Umehara, K., Ono, H., Kawakami, N.

Abstract

Background: A harsh work environment including psychosocial job demands might cause adverse events due to medical mismanagement, but the association has not been explored. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether some types of psychosocial job demands are associated with adverse events due to dental mismanagement experienced by general dental practitioners. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to members of a local branch of the Japan dental association. A total of 261 dental practitioners responded anonymously (response rate 53%). Psychosocial job demands were measured by a Japanese version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, which comprises five sub-scales: quantitative demands, cognitive demands, emotional demands, demands for hiding emotions, and sensorial demands. The outcome was defined according to whether the respondent's patients experienced one of the following adverse events due to dental mismanagement at least once during the previous one year: dropping of dental instrument or broken injection needle, soft tissue or nerve injury, accidental bleeding, loss of a tooth root into the maxillary sinus, and emphysema. Associations between each demand index and experience of adverse events were examined by logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Emotional demands and sensorial demands were significantly associated with the experience of adverse events (odds ratio = 3.9 for each). Other than the indices, male gender, younger age, practice alone, many dental chairs (five or more), and many patients (30 or more per day) were the risks. Working hours per week and number of paramedical staff had no significant associations. Conclusion: Emotional and sensorial job demands are a potential target for the reduction of adverse events due to dental mismanagement.

Year

2007

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Japan

Occupations

Dentistry

DOI

10.1186/1472-6831-7-3

Reference

Tsutsumi, A., Umehara, K., Ono, H., Kawakami, N. (2007). Types of psychosocial job demands and adverse events due to dental mismanagement: a cross sectional study. BMC oral health, 7, S. 3.

Follow-up study of musculoskeletal disorders 20 months after the introduction of a mouse-based computer system

Arvidsson, I., Axmon, A., Skerfving, S.

Abstract

Objectives: This study attempted to determine whether musculoskeletal health is influenced by mouse-intensive computer work. Methods: The neck–upper limbs of 148 air-traffic controllers (71 women, 77 men) with demanding computer work were examined before (baseline) and a median of 20 months after (follow-up) a change from varied computer work to a mouse-based system, causing a significant change in the physical exposure of the workers (eg, lower variation of work postures and less rest in the forearm extensor muscles, as assessed by technical measurements). Complaints (according to a Nordic questionnaire), diagnoses (standardized physical examination), and psychosocial work environment (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) were recorded. Results: The air traffic controllers had consistently higher prevalences of disorders in the elbows–hands in the follow-up than at the baseline (complaints 30% versus 18%, P=0.03; diagnoses 10% versus 3.4%, P=0.02). The predominance of right-arm disorders was more pronounced in the follow-up than at the baseline. For the neck–shoulders–upper back, there was no consistent difference between the baseline and follow-up values; disorders increased significantly among the “young” controllers (≤37 years), but not among the “older” ones. Perceived decision latitude decreased, while social support increased, but these changes did not explain the disorders that appeared in the elbows–hands. Conclusions: Intensive mouse-based computer work, with constrained posture and little rest in the forearm muscles, was associated with an increased risk of disorders in the elbows–hands. This finding should be considered for similar technological developments in other settings.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

Air traffic controllers

Reference

Arvidsson, I., Axmon, A., Skerfving, S. (2008). Follow-up study of musculoskeletal disorders 20 months after the introduction of a mouse-based computer system. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 34 (5), S. 374–380.

Age-dependent relationships between work ability, thinking of quitting the job, and actual leaving among Italian nurses: a longitudinal study

Camerino, D., Conway, P. M., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Estryn-Behar, M., Costa, G., Hasselhorn, H.-M.

Abstract

Background: Qualified nurses commonly report several work-related problems, which may threat their health and work ability, and may have an impact upon retention. - Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether perceived work ability is a predictor for different types of thinking of quitting and for actual exit from the workplace. - Design: A prospective study has been performed based on 3329 Italian registered nurses which responded to both measurements of the Nurses’ Early Exit Study. Institutions were selected by means of a stratified sampling procedure. All the 7447 nurses working in that healthcare organizations were recruited for the study. Baseline questionnaire was collected from 5504 nurses. Response rate at follow-up was 63.4%. Two hundred and fifty-five nurses left the job in the course of the investigation. - Methods: Several multiple logistic regression analyses were performed controlling for indicators of work-related well-being, socio-demographic, and labour-market characteristics. - Results: As a whole, our results show that among nurses younger than 45 years work ability is a significant predictor of different types of thinking of quitting, but not of actual exit from the workplace: a lower perceived work ability was associated with a higher desire to undertake further education (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.30–7.18) and/or to change workplace (OR: 4.03; 95% CI: 1.84–8.83) or profession (OR: 6.67; 95% CI: 2.78–15.99). In contrast, among the older nurses (>45), only actual exit was predicted by lower work ability scores (OR: 7.14; 95% CI: 1.15–44.13), along with the perception of a larger availability of free nursing posts in the region (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.13–6.43). - Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that in the relationship between low perceived work ability and intended or actual exit, a significant part is explained by age itself, but also by the age-related differences in occupational and life opportunities. This contribution concludes with some age-related policies aimed at boosting nurses’ retention.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Italy

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.03.002

Reference

Camerino, D., Conway, P. M., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Estryn-Behar, M., Costa, G., Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2008). Age-dependent relationships between work ability, thinking of quitting the job, and actual leaving among Italian nurses: a longitudinal study. International journal of nursing studies, 45 (11), S. 1645–1659.

Work-related factors and violence among nursing staff in the European NEXT study: a longitudinal cohort study

Camerino, D., Estryn-Behar, M., Conway, P.M., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M. & Hasselhorn, H.-M.

Abstract

The occurrence of workplace violence is rather frequent within the nursing profession, with well-known consequences on the psychological health of victims. This study is aimed at assessing the relationships between relevant individual, organizational, and psychosocial factors, and the frequency of several types of workplace violence; the direct as well as the interactive impact of violence and psychosocial factors on organizational commitment and perceived health. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional and longitudinal survey designs were employed for the two study objectives, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five healthcare institutions from eight European countries participated in the Nurses' Early Exit Study. The 34,107 participants were nursing staff holding different qualifications. The response rate was 55.1% in the cross-sectional part and 40.5% in the follow-up phase. At baseline, the respondents were mostly female (89.3%), in the age group 30-44 years (52.9%), registered or specialized nurses (67.0%), working mainly in medico-surgical wards (36.3%), and employed full-time (72.8%). In the cross-sectional analysis, the relationship between the predictor variables and frequency of violence was assessed by means of a hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the longitudinal analysis, main direct and interactive effects of violence and psychosocial factors on perceived health and organizational commitment were assessed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms. Higher levels of adverse work-related factors were significantly associated with higher frequency of the distinguished types of violence. Significant interactions were found between psychosocial factors and violence only in predicting organizational commitment, even if effect sizes were very low. No interactions were observed for perceived health. The prevalence of the distinguished types of violence varied across the participating countries according to the presence of adverse work- and non-work-related factors. These findings suggest the necessity of interventions both over working conditions conducive to violence and violent behaviours themselves.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.01.013

Reference

Camerino, D., Estryn-Behar, M., Conway, P.M., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M. & Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2008). Work-related factors and violence among nursing staff in the European NEXT study: a longitudinal cohort study. International journal of nursing studies, 45 (1), S. 35–50.

The impact of psychosocial work environment factors on the risk of disability pension in Denmark

Christensen, K. B., Feveile, H., Labriola, M., Lund, T.

Abstract

This study quantifies the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on the risk of disability pension. Differences in risk of disability pension were estimated in a representative sample of Danish employees followed for a total of 118 117 person-years of risk time. After control for smoking, BMI and ergonomic work environment, low decision authority and low variation in work showed a statistically significant association with disability pension. Adverse psychosocial work environment factors accounted for 10–15% of disability pension cases.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/eurpub/ckm130

Reference

Christensen, K. B., Feveile, H., Labriola, M., Lund, T. (2008). The impact of psychosocial work environment factors on the risk of disability pension in Denmark. European journal of public health, 18 (3), S. 235–237.

Explaining the social gradient in long-term sickness absence: a prospective study of Danish employees

Christensen, K. B., Labriola, M., Lund, T., Kivimaki, M.

Abstract

Objectives: To identify differences in risk of sickness absence between socioeconomic groups, and to examine to what extent these differences can be explained by health behaviour and work environment factors. Design, setting and participants: A cohort of 5221 employees in Denmark interviewed in 2000 regarding health behaviours and work environment were followed for 18 months in order to assess their rate of sickness absence exceeding eight consecutive weeks. Based on employment grade, job title and education respondents were classified into five socioeconomic position (SEP) groups. Executive managers and academics were the reference group. Results: For both genders a social gradient in long-term sickness absence rates was evident. In men, controlling for health behaviours and physical work environment factors reduced rate ratios by 22–57%. Controlling for health behaviours alone reduced rate ratios by 6–13%. In women, controlling for health behaviour reduced rate ratios by 5–18%, and controlling for both health behaviours and physical work environment factors reduced rate ratios by 21–44%. Introducing psychosocial factors reduced the rate ratios further, yielding a reduction of 22–53% in the fully adjusted model. In both genders, the largest reductions were seen in skilled blue-collar workers and for semi-skilled or unskilled workers (by 58–59% in men and by 41–53% in women). Conclusion: A social gradient in long-term sickness absence was found. Physical work environment explained more of this gradient than health behaviour. Also including psychosocial work environment in the model had no effect in men but a small effect among women.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/jech.2006.056135

Reference

Christensen, K. B., Labriola, M., Lund, T., Kivimaki, M. (2008). Explaining the social gradient in long-term sickness absence: a prospective study of Danish employees. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 62 (2), S. 181–183.

Violence risks in nursing--results from the European 'NEXT' Study

Estryn-Behar, M. van der Heijden, B., Camerino, D., Fry, C., Le Nezet, O., Conway, P. M., Hasselhorn, H.-M.

Abstract

Background: Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. Aims: To identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. Methods: Nurses from 10 European countries answered to a questionnaire and to a follow-up assessment. Stepwise adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and other work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Results: A total of 39,894 nurses responded to the baseline questionnaire (51% response rate). After adjustment for age, gender and other risk factors, quality of teamwork appeared to be a major factor with odds ratio (OR) 1.35 (1.24-1.48) for medium quality and 1.52 (1.33-1.74) for low quality. Uncertainty regarding patients' treatments was linked with violence, with a clear gradient (OR 1.59, 1.47-1.72 for medium uncertainty and 2.13, 1.88-2.41 for high uncertainty). Working only night shift was at high risk (OR 2.17, 1.76-2.67). High levels of time pressure and physical load were associated with violence OR 1.45 (1.24-1.69) and 1.84 (1.66-2.04), respectively. High and medium frequency of violence was associated with higher levels of burnout, intent to leave nursing and intent to change institution. A 1-year follow-up assessment indicated stability in the relationships between outcomes. Conclusion: This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1093/occmed/kqm142

Reference

Estryn-Behar, M. van der Heijden, B., Camerino, D., Fry, C., Le Nezet, O., Conway, P. M., Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2008). Violence risks in nursing--results from the European 'NEXT' Study. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 58 (2), S. 107–114.

Working conditions and Work-Family Conflict in German hospital physicians: psychosocial and organisational predictors and consequences

Fuß, I., Nubling, M., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Schwappach, D., Rieger, M. A.

Abstract

Background: Germany currently experiences a situation of major physician attrition. The incompatibility between work and family has been discussed as one of the major reasons for the increasing departure of German physicians for non-clinical occupations or abroad. This study investigates predictors for one particular direction of Work-Family Conflict--namely work interfering with family conflict (WIF)--which are located within the psychosocial work environment or work organisation of hospital physicians. Furthermore, effects of WIF on the individual physicians' physical and mental health were examined. Analyses were performed with an emphasis on gender differences. Comparisons with the general German population were made. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaires as part of a study on Psychosocial work hazards and strains of German hospital physicians during April-July 2005. Two hundred and ninety-six hospital physicians (response rate 38.9%) participated in the survey. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), work interfering with family conflict scale (WIF), and hospital-specific single items on work organisation were used to assess WIF, its predictors, and consequences. Results: German hospital physicians reported elevated levels of WIF (mean = 74) compared to the general German population (mean = 45, p < .01). No significant gender difference was found. Predictors for the WIF were lower age, high quantitative demands at work, elevated number of days at work despite own illness, and consequences of short-notice changes in the duty roster. Good sense of community at work was a protective factor. Compared to the general German population, we observed a significant higher level of quantitative work demands among hospital physicians (mean = 73 vs. mean = 57, p < .01). High values of WIF were significantly correlated to higher rates of personal burnout, behavioural and cognitive stress symptoms, and the intention to leave the job. In contrast, low levels of WIF predicted higher job satisfaction, better self-judged general health status, better work ability, and higher satisfaction with life in general. Compared to the German general population, physicians showed significantly higher levels of individual stress and quality of life as well as lower levels for well-being. This has to be judged as an alerting finding regarding the state of physicians' health. Conclusion: In our study, work interfering with family conflict (WIF) as part of Work-Family Conflict (WFC) was highly prevalent among German hospital physicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WIF. Some of these predictors are accessible to alteration by improving work organisation in hospitals.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physicians

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-8-353

Reference

Fuß, I., Nubling, M., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Schwappach, D., Rieger, M. A. (2008). Working conditions and Work-Family Conflict in German hospital physicians: psychosocial and organisational predictors and consequences. BMC public health, 8, S. 353.

Occupational stress and mental health among correctional officers: a cross-sectional study

Ghaddar, Ali., Mateo, I., Sanchez, P.

Abstract

A harsh psychosocial environment in the workplace might cause adverse health events, but the association has not been well demonstrated in the penitentiary environment. This cross-sectional study was designed to explore the association between workplace psychosocial risks and the mental health of correctional officers in a Spanish penitentiary center. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to correctional officers. A total of 164 responded anonymously (response rate 43%). The SF36 survey was used to measure mental health and ISTAS21 (Spanish version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used to measure exposure to workplace psychosocial conditions. Low scores were obtained for mental health, high scores were obtained for psychological demands, low self-esteem, and low control and influence and moderate scores for low social support, double exposure, and insecurity at work. A linear regression analysis was constructed to study the influence of workplace psychosocial conditions (independent variables) on mental health (dependent variable). The effect was adjusted for sex, age, seniority, and occupational group. Psychological demands (highest impact), low control and influence, and double exposure had significant inverse associations with mental health. The association between low social support, low self-esteem, and insecurity at work with mental health was insignificant. Psychosocial work conditions are a potential target for mental health promotion programs at work.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

Correctional officer

DOI

10.1539/joh.50.92

Reference

Ghaddar, Ali., Mateo, I., Sanchez, P. (2008). Occupational stress and mental health among correctional officers: a cross-sectional study. Journal of occupational health, 50 (1), S. 92–98.

Contribution of job strain to Nurses' consideration of leaving the profession – results from the longitudinal European Nurses' early exit study

Hasselhorn, H.-M., Conway, P.M., Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Simon, M., Tackenberg, P., Schmidt, S., Camerino, D., Müller, B. & NEXT study Group

Abstract

Objectives: The role of work characteristics was assessed, as operationalized by the demand–control model with respect to nurses’ intent to leave their profession, using data from the European nurses’ early exit (NEXT) study. Methods: Data from a self-report questionnaire filled out by 11 606 registered nurses who worked in hospitals in eight European countries and who had participated in both the NEXT baseline assessment (2002–2003) and the NEXT follow-up assessment (2003–2004) were used. Results: The countries varied substantially as regards demands, influence, and intent to leave the profession. The variables also varied considerably over time within the countries. Among the nurses not considering leaving the profession in 2002–2003, those initially not exposed to job strain (high demands and low influence) but exposed 1 year later had a 2.7-fold higher risk of considering to leave the profession [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.1–3.4, multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders) when compared with the reference group (no job strain both times). The nurses with job strain in both assessments showed a 2.3-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.8–2.9). No increased risk was found for those with job strain in the first assessment but not in the second assessment. The findings were similar for most countries. Conclusions: The considerable variability of the job demand–control indicators assessed during the 12-month period may imply a potential for improvement. The results emphasize the importance of changes in job strain in determining fluctuations in nurses’ considerations of leaving their profession, even over a short period.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

Reference

Hasselhorn, H.-M., Conway, P.M., Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Simon, M., Tackenberg, P., Schmidt, S., Camerino, D., Müller, B. & NEXT study Group (2008). Contribution of job strain to Nurses' consideration of leaving the profession – results from the longitudinal European Nurses' early exit study. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, (6), S. 75–82.

Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations

Klussmann, A., Gebhardt, H., Liebers, F., Rieger, M. A.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremities and neck at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 1,065 employees working at VDT > 1 h/d completed a standardised questionnaire. Workstation conditions were documented in a standardised checklist, and a subgroup of 82 employees underwent a physical examination. Results: Using the Nordic Questionnaire, the 12-month prevalence of symptoms of the neck, shoulder region, hand/wrist, or elbow/lower arm was 55%, 38%, 21%, and 15% respectively. The duration of VDT work had a significant impact on the frequency of neck symptoms in employees performing such work > 6 h/d. Conclusion: With regard to musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities, preventive measures at VDT workstations should be focused on neck and shoulder symptoms (e.g. ergonomic measures, breaks to avoid sitting over long periods).

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1186/1471-2474-9-96

Reference

Klussmann, A., Gebhardt, H., Liebers, F., Rieger, M. A. (2008). Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 9, S. 96.

Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers

Kolstrup, C., Lundqvist, P., Pinzke, S.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as “good” by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in “the back” and in the “upper extremities.” This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

Farmworkers

DOI

10.1080/10599240801986157

Reference

Kolstrup, C., Lundqvist, P., Pinzke, S. (2008). Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers. Journal of agromedicine, 13 (1), S. 23–36.

Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

Lund, T., Christensen, K. B., Vaez, M., Labriola, M., Josephson, M., Villadsen, E., Voss, M.

Abstract

Aim: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. Methods: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution of dependent and independent variables in the two sub-cohorts. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify causes for absence within the two sub-cohorts, and logistic regression analysis was performed to study differences in sickness absence levels between the two sub-cohorts. Results: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level, lifestyle, psychosocial or physical work environment, musculoskeletal symptoms or self-rated health, whereas work ability score decreased the difference in sickness absence level. Conclusion: The results could indicate an increased retention of employees with health problems in the Swedish labour market compared with the Danish labour market. A possible explanation for the differences in sickness absence ascertained in this study could be due to differences in the sickness insurance legislation.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden, Denmark

Occupations

Public service

DOI

10.1093/eurpub/ckn128

Reference

Lund, T., Christensen, K. B., Vaez, M., Labriola, M., Josephson, M., Villadsen, E., Voss, M. (2008). Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study. European journal of public health, 19 (3), S. 343–349.

Psychosocial risk exposure among wage earning population in Spain (2004-05): reference values of the 21 dimensions of COPSOQ ISTAS21 questionnaire

Moncada Lluis, S., Llorens Serrano, C., Font Corominas, A., Galtes Camps, A., Navarro Gine, A.,

Abstract

Background. Reference values of all the 21 psychosocial scales or dimensions (73 items) of the psychosocial risk assessment questionnaire COPSOQ ISTAS21 are computed from a representative sample of the wage earning population in Spain. Methods. Representative sample of the Spanish wage-earning population, n=7,612. The sampling was multi-stage by conglomerates. The information was obtained by the administration of a standardized questionnaire in the household during 2004-2005. All 21 scales were standardized and three punctuation levels were established and labelled as more favourable to health (or green), intermediate (or yellow) and more unfavourable to health (or red) according two criteria: 1) to obtain groups that follow a tertiles theoretical distribution and 2) to get the red and green groups as equilibrated as possible. Results. Response rate was 60. Predictability dimension showed the wider difference between green and red proportions (7.14). Role clarity concentred the 35.06 % of population between 100 and 93.75 points, and Sense of community the 29.6% between 100 and 91.67. Double presence and hiding emotions grouped the 34.02% and the 27.74% % of population between 0 and 12.5 points, respectively.Conclusions. 2005 upgraded representative reference values of the 21 COPSOQ ISTAS21 psychosocial dimensions for the wage earning population in Spain are available, necessary premise to diagnose risk situations and prioritize the needed preventive actions at company level.

Year

2008

Study type

Validation

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1590/S1135-57272008000600007

Reference

Moncada Lluis, S., Llorens Serrano, C., Font Corominas, A., Galtes Camps, A., Navarro Gine, A., (2008). Psychosocial risk exposure among wage earning population in Spain (2004-05): reference values of the 21 dimensions of COPSOQ ISTAS21 questionnaire. Revista espanola de salud publica, 82 (6), S. 667–675.

Changes in safety climate and accidents at two identical manufacturing plants

Nielsen, K. J., Rasmussen, K., Glasscock, D., Spangenberg, S.

Abstract

This study aimed at examining if between-plant differences in safety climate are reflected in corresponding differences in accident rates, and if subsequent changes in safety climate are paralleled by changes in accident rates. The study population was all production workers at two identical manufacturing plants under the same corporation. Safety climate was assessed by questionnaires and safety audits at two points in time with a 12-month interval. At baseline Plant B scored lower than Plant A on five out of six dimensions of safety climate, and had double the rate of self-reported injuries and an almost 30% higher incidence of lost-time-injuries (LTIs). Prior to the present study, Plant A had participated in a comprehensive work environment improvement project. During the study period, knowledge and experiences acquired from this intervention were actively transferred from Plant A to Plant B. At follow-up accident rates were reduced at both plants and the only significant between-plant difference was commitment to the workplace. The study demonstrates a relationship between changes in both questionnaire- and audit-based measures of safety climate and rates of self-reported injuries and LTIs.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

No information

Occupations

Production workers

DOI

10.1016/j.ssci.2007.05.009

Reference

Nielsen, K. J., Rasmussen, K., Glasscock, D., Spangenberg, S. (2008). Changes in safety climate and accidents at two identical manufacturing plants. Safety Science, 46 (3), S. 440–449.

The effects of transformational leadership on followers’ perceived work characteristics and psychological well-being. A longitudinal study

Nielsen, K., Randall, R., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.-O.

Abstract

Transformational leaders employ a visionary and creative style of leadership that inspires employees to broaden their interest in their work and to be innovative and creative. There is some evidence that transformational leadership style is linked to employee psychological well-being. However, it is not clear whether this is due to (1) a direct relationship between leadership behaviour and affective well-being outcomes, or (2) a relationship between leadership behaviour and well-being that is mediated by followers’ perceived work characteristics. (Such characteristics include role clarity, meaningfulness, and opportunities for development.) This study aims to extend previous work by examining the validity of these two mechanisms in a longitudinal questionnaire study. The study was carried out within the elderly care sector in a Danish local governmental department. A theory-driven model of the relationships between leadership, work characteristics, and psychological well-being was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results indicated that followers’ perceptions of their work characteristics did mediate the relationship between transformational leadership style and psychological well-being. However, there was only limited evidence of the existence of a direct path between leadership behaviour and employee well-being. These findings have implications for design, implementation, and management of efforts to improve employee well-being.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1080/02678370801979430

Reference

Nielsen, K., Randall, R., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.-O. (2008). The effects of transformational leadership on followers’ perceived work characteristics and psychological well-being. A longitudinal study. Work & Stress, 22 (1), S. 16–32.

The importance of transformational leadership style for the well-being of employees working with older people

Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.-O., Randall, R., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aim: This paper is a report of a study to explore the relationships between transformational leadership, followers' perceived working conditions and employee well-being and job satisfaction. Bckground: There is some evidence that transformational leadership style is linked to employee job satisfaction and well-being. However, it is not clear whether this is due to (i) a direct relationship between leadership and job satisfaction and well-being outcomes or (ii) whether followers' perceived working conditions mediate this relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied to data from a questionnaire study of 447 staff caring for older people in Denmark. Data were collected in 2005. A theory-driven model of the relationships between leadership, working conditions, job satisfaction and well-being was tested using structural equation modelling. Results: The transformational leadership style was closely associated with followers' working conditions, namely involvement, influence and meaningfulness. Involvement was associated with job satisfaction and meaningfulness was associated with well-being. However, working conditions were closely correlated with each other, and thus the mediating mechanisms may operate through several different working conditions. A direct path between leadership behaviour and employee well-being was also found. Conclusion: Considering working conditions in the absence of studying leadership behaviour (or vice versa) may reveal an incomplete picture of the impact of work and work relationships on well-being. Work re-design interventions focused on influence may benefit from the consideration of training managers to exert transformational leadership behaviours.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04701.x

Reference

Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.-O., Randall, R., Borg, V. (2008). The importance of transformational leadership style for the well-being of employees working with older people. Journal of advanced nursing, 63 (5), S. 465–475.

Job insecurity, chances on the labour market and decline in self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Burr, H., Bultmann, U.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate if job insecurity and poor labour market chances predict a decline in self-rated health in the Danish workforce. Design: Job insecurity, labour market chances, self-rated health and numerous covariates were measured in 1809 women and 1918 men who responded to a questionnaire in 1995 and again in 2000. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the impact of job insecurity and labour market chances measured in 1995 on decline in health in 2000. Setting: Prospective cohort study with a representative sample of the Danish workforce using the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS). All participants were employed at baseline. Main results: Women with job insecurity had an increased risk of a decline in health at follow-up, after adjustment for all covariates (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.54). Effect estimates were strongest among women 50 years of age or younger with poor labour market chances (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.45). Among men, there was no main effect for job insecurity. However, men aged 50 years or younger with poor labour market chances showed an OR of 1.64 (95% CI: 0.95 to 2.84) for a decline in health. Conclusion: Job insecurity is a predictor for a decline in health in employed women in Denmark. Among men, a suggestive effect of job insecurity was found in employees aged 50 years or younger with poor labour market chances.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/jech.2006.059113

Reference

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Burr, H., Bultmann, U. (2008). Job insecurity, chances on the labour market and decline in self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 62 (3), S. 245–250.

Back or neck-pain-related disability of nursing staff in hospitals, nursing homes and home care in seven countries--results from the European NEXT-Study

Simon, M., Tackenberg, P., Nienhaus, A., Estryn-Behar, M., Conway, P. M., Hasselhorn, H.-M.

Abstract

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are a widespread affliction in the nursing profession. Back or neck-pain-related disability of nursing staff is mainly attributed to physical and psychosocial risk factors. Objectives: To investigate which—and to what extent—physical and psychosocial risk factors are associated with neck/back-pain-related disability in nursing, and to assess the role of the type of health care institution (hospitals, nursing homes and home care institutions) within different countries in this problem. Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of multinational data of nurses and auxiliary staff in hospitals (n=16,770), nursing homes (n=2140) and home care institutions (n=2606) in seven countries from the European NEXT-Study. Methods: Multinomial logistic regression analysis with raw models for each factor and mutually adjusted with all analysed variables. Results: Analysis of the pooled data revealed effort-reward imbalance as the predominant risk factor for disability in all settings (odds ratios for high disability by effort-reward ratio: hospital 5.05 [4.30–5.93]; nursing home 6.52 [4.04–10.52] and home care 6.4 [3.83–10.70] [after mutual adjustment of psychosocial and physical risk factors]). In contrast, physical exposure to lifting and bending showed only limited associations with odds ratios below 1.6; the availability and use of lifting aids was—after mutual adjustment—not or only marginally associated with disability. These findings were basically confirmed in separate analyses for all seven countries and types of institutions. Conclusions: The findings show a pronounced association between psychosocial factors and back or neck-pain-related disability. Further research should consider psychosocial factors and should take the setting where nurses work into account.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.11.003

Reference

Simon, M., Tackenberg, P., Nienhaus, A., Estryn-Behar, M., Conway, P. M., Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2008). Back or neck-pain-related disability of nursing staff in hospitals, nursing homes and home care in seven countries--results from the European NEXT-Study. International journal of nursing studies, 45 (1), S. 24–34.

The role of physical fitness as risk indicator of increased low back pain intensity among people working with physically and mentally disabled persons: a 30-month prospective study

Stroyer, J., Jensen, L. D.

Abstract

Study design: A prospective cohort study. Objective: To study if low level of physical fitness was associated with increased low back pain (LBP) intensity at 30-month follow-up. Summary of background data: The evidence of low physical fitness as a risk factor for LBP is inconclusive due to contradictory results. Methods: Study participants were 327 employees (women = 271, men = 56) at institutions for physically and mentally disabled persons. Physical fitness was measured by tests of: back extension and flexion endurance, flexibility and balance; and by self-assessed aerobic fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and balance, using visual analogue scales. Low back pain, lifestyle parameters, and physical and psychosocial work factors were assessed by questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up. Outcome was defined as an increase above 2 steps in average LBP intensity during the previous year (0-10). Results: Persons with low level back endurance showed an insignificantly higher risk of increased LBP intensity (OR = 2.4, P = 0.076), whereas persons with medium level back endurance were at significantly higher risk (OR = 2.7, P = 0.034) compared with those with high level back endurance. The general association between isometric back extension endurance and increased LBP intensity was insignificant (P = 0.067). Persons with medium level self-assessed aerobic fitness were at lower risk of increased LBP intensity compared with those with high level (OR = 0.37, P = 0.02), although the general association of aerobic fitness was insignificant (0.066). Performance-based back flexion endurance, flexibility, and balance; and self-assessed muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance were not associated with increased LBP intensity. Conclusion: The significant association between medium level back extension endurance and increased LBP intensity supports the finding of other studies that particularly back extension endurance is an important physical fitness component in preventing LBP and that the subcomponents of physical fitness are related in different ways to LBP.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Care workers

DOI

10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181657cde

Reference

Stroyer, J., Jensen, L. D. (2008). The role of physical fitness as risk indicator of increased low back pain intensity among people working with physically and mentally disabled persons: a 30-month prospective study. Spine, 33 (5), S. 546–554.

Available instruments for measurement of psychosocial factors in the work environment

Tabanelli, M. C., Depolo, M., Cooke, R. M. T., Sarchielli, G., Bonfiglioli, R., Mattioli, S., Violante, F. S.

Abstract

Objective: To provide an overview of the spectrum of available for measurement and evaluation of work-related psychosocial factors. Methods: We systematically searched the literature/internet to identify and describe the main available questionnaires and observational instruments for assessment of work-related psychosocial factors (with/without other job stressors). Results: A total of 33 instruments were identified (26 questionnaires, 7 observational), many (11 questionnaires, 5 observational) linked to national institutions/intiatives. Accessibility of relevant information (on the internet or elsewhere) regarding the instruments varied widely. Conclusions: This summary of the range of instruments currently available for evaluation of multiple work stressors at individual, group and/or organizational levels may provide a useful tool for operators and researchers.

Year

2008

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1007/s00420-008-0312-6

Reference

Tabanelli, M. C., Depolo, M., Cooke, R. M. T., Sarchielli, G., Bonfiglioli, R., Mattioli, S., Violante, F. S. (2008). Available instruments for measurement of psychosocial factors in the work environment. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 82 (1), S. 1–12.

Shift work and sickness absence

Tuchsen, F., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T.

Abstract

Background: Sickness absence is increasing in public work places in Denmark where shift work is common. Aims: The aim of this prospective study was to predict the hazard ratio (HR) of short- and long-term sickness absence due to shift work in Danish shift workers. Methods: A total of 1008 shift workers and 4009 day workers were followed up for short- and long-time sickness absence. Results: Among shift workers, the HR of sickness absence lasting ≥2 weeks was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71–1.18) for men and 0.90 for women (95% CI: 0.71–1.14). For sickness absence lasting ≥8 weeks, the HR was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.91–1.94) for men and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.81–1.59) for women. Conclusion: This study was inconclusive in proving any link between shift work and absenteeism after controlling for age, education, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, psychosocial and physical work environment factors.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Shift workers

DOI

10.1093/occmed/kqn019

Reference

Tuchsen, F., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T. (2008). Shift work and sickness absence. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 58 (4), S. 302–304.

Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health

van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B.

Abstract

Aims: This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test the so-called loss spiral hypothesis claiming that nurses' health problems lead to even higher job demands and more work-home interference over time. Background: While many scholars have thought in terms of the stressor-->work-home interference-->strain model, the validity of a model that includes opposite pathways needs to be tested. Methods: A questionnaire was completed twice, with a 1-year time interval by 753 (63.4%) Registered Nurses working in hospitals, 183 (15.4%) working in nursing homes, and 251 (21.1%) working in home care institutions. The first measurement took place between October 2002 and June 2003. Findings: Our findings strongly support the idea of cross-lagged, reciprocal relationships between job demands and general health over time. The reciprocal model with work-home interference as an intervening variable (including reciprocal relationships between job demands, work-home interference and general health) showed a good fit to the data, and proved to be superior to both the causality and reversed causation models. Conclusion: The higher nurses' job demands, the higher is their level of work-home interference and the more likely is a general health deterioration over time, in turn giving rise to higher job demands and work-home interference, which may even aggravate the nurses' general health, and so on.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Netherlands

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04630.x

Reference

van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B. (2008). Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health. Journal of advanced nursing, 62 (5), S. 572–584.

The Demand-Control-Support model and intent to leave across six European countries. The role of employment opportunities

Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Radkiewicz, P., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Maurice Conway, P., van der Heijden, B., Group the NEXT Study

Abstract

In this paper, the explanatory power of the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model for intent to leave (ITL) a job was tested, with employment opportunities (EO) taken into consideration. It was hypothesized that, when employment opportunities are low, the explanatory power of the DCS model for ITL is low because workers have no possibility of finding a new job despite the stressful characteristics of their current one. Analyses were performed on 16,052 female nurses from six European countries who were participating in the Nurses’ Early Exit Study (NEXT). A country's unemployment rate and perceived employment opportunities were measures of EO. The results of multivariate regression analyses revealed that (controlling, among other things, for type of work contract) demands were related to ITL irrespective of EO. However, control and social support were more strongly related to ITL: (1) in countries with low (versus high) unemployment rate, and (2) among individuals with high (versus low) perceived employment opportunities. The DCS model, in its additive version (the main effects of the three dimensions), had better explanatory power for ITL in low unemployment rate countries only. The results suggest that employment opportunities may influence the explanatory power of the DCS model in relation not only to intent to leave but also to other outcomes.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1080/02678370801999750

Reference

Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Radkiewicz, P., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Maurice Conway, P., van der Heijden, B., Group the NEXT Study (2008). The Demand-Control-Support model and intent to leave across six European countries. The role of employment opportunities. Work & Stress, 22 (2), S. 166–184.

Psychosocial working conditions and the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in the Danish workforce

Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P. B., Burr, H., Tuchsen, F., Bonde, J. P.

Abstract

Background: To examine the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders according to psychosocial working conditions in a large population-based sample. Methods: Job Exposure Matrix was applied to assess psychosocial working conditions in a population-based nested case-control study of 14,166 psychiatric patients, diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorders during 1995–1998 selected from The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, compared with 58,060 controls drawn from Statistics Denmark's Integrated Database for Labour Market Research. Results: Low job control was associated with an increased risk of anxiety disorders in men (IRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24–1.58). In women an elevated risk of depression was related to high emotional demands (IRR 1.39, 95%CI 1.22–1.58) and to working with people (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01–1.30). In both sexes high demands were associated with a decreased risk of anxiety disorders. There was a weak association between job strain and anxiety disorders in men (IRR 1.13, 95%, CI 1.02–1.25) Conclusion: Psychosocial work exposures related to the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders differ as between the sexes. The pattern of risks is inconsistent. The results give rise to rethinking both study designs and possible causal links between work exposures and mental health.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-8-280

Reference

Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P. B., Burr, H., Tuchsen, F., Bonde, J. P. (2008). Psychosocial working conditions and the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in the Danish workforce. BMC public health, 8, S. 280.

Resources and quality of care in services for the elderly

Winsløw, J. H., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the association between resources of the workplace and the quality of care in municipal long-term care. At the municipal level, the resources comprised the proportion of care workers with a long period of professional training and the relative availability of care-giving manpower. At the level of the organizational unit, the resources comprised aspects of the psychosocial working environment. Methods: A survey of 7,500 care workers in 36 municipalities in Denmark was performed. Quality of care was measured by seven standardized questions in a questionnaire. Data on the psychosocial resources of the workplace were aggregated responses from the care workers to questions from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Data on the training and relative availability of care workers were derived by combining information from payroll lists and data available from government databases. Results: There was a positive association between psychosocial resources at the level of the organizational unit and the quality of care provided by the individual care worker. There was no association between the level of professional training of the municipal workforce of care-givers and the quality of care provided by the individual care worker. There was a complex relationship between the relative availability of care-giving manpower at the municipal level and the quality of care provided by the individual care worker. Conclusions: Improving the psychosocial working environment of care workers is one key to securing sufficient caring staff for the long-term care sector; increasing manpower or increasing the proportion of highly trained staff are not in themselves such keys.

Year

2008

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Care workers

DOI

10.1177/1403494807086972

Reference

Winsløw, J. H., Borg, V. (2008). Resources and quality of care in services for the elderly. Scandinavian journal of public health, 36 (3), S. 272–278.

Introduction to the supplement on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire -- in honour of Tage Sondergard Kristensen

Bjorner, J. B., Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R.

Abstract

This special issue was conceived as a tribute to Tage Søndergaard Kristensen when he retired from the position as professor at the National Research Centre for the Working Environment to pursue acareer as independent researcher and consultant. We chose the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a theme, since this questionnaire was co-developed by Tage, has been the focus of his research activities for the past 10 years, and synthesizes much of his thinking about the psychosocial working environment. The COPSOQ aims to provide occupational health practitioners and researchers with a tool for assessing the psychosocial working environment that is generic in the sense that it is applicable across job groups and provides a broad and detailed description of the working environment, rather than being linked to one particular theory. The questionnaire has generated broad international interest and has so far been translated into 15 languages.

Year

2009

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1177/1403494809354842

Reference

Bjorner, J. B., Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R. (2009). Introduction to the supplement on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire -- in honour of Tage Sondergard Kristensen. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 4–7.

Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

Clausen, T., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T., Kristiansen, J.

Abstract

Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence. The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one-quarter and three-quarters of their time at work had an increased risk of 43% (CI: 10-85%) for sickness absence of two weeks or longer compared to men that reported never to be exposed to loud noise. Men that reported to be little/rarely exposed to loud noise had an increased risk of 37% (CI: 7-76%). Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise more than three-quarters of their time at work did not have an increased risk of sickness absence. This latter result might be due a healthy worker effect and/or more frequent use of hearing protection in this group. Along with evidence from previous studies these results provide further support for an association between occupational noise exposure and sickness absence.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.4103/1463-1741.50693

Reference

Clausen, T., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T., Kristiansen, J. (2009). Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence. Noise & health, 11 (43), S. 93–97.

Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO) - the study protocol

Mache, S., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Background: The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised. To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. Methods: The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion: This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physicians

DOI

10.1186/1745-6673-4-12

Reference

Mache, S., Groneberg, D. A. (2009). Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO) - the study protocol. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 4, S. 12.

Physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction: does hospital ownership in Germany make a difference?

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Nienhaus, A., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Background: A growing number of German hospitals have been privatized with the intention of increasing cost effectiveness and improving the quality of health care. Numerous studies investigated what possible qualitative and economic consequences these changes issues might have on patient care.However, little is known about how this privatization trend relates to physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction. It was anticipated that different working conditions would be associated with different types of hospital ownership. To that end, this study's purpose is to compare how physicians, working for both public and privatized hospitals, rate their respective psychosocial working conditions and job satisfaction. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional comparison using questionnaire data from 203 physicians working at German hospitals of different ownership types (private for-profit, public and private nonprofit). Results: The present study shows that several aspects of physicians' perceived working conditions differ significantly depending on hospital ownership. However, results also indicated that physicians' job satisfaction does not vary between different types of hospital ownership. Finally, it was demonstrated that job demands and resources are associated with job satisfaction, while type of ownership is not. Conclusions: This study represents one of a few studies that investigate the effect of hospital ownership on physicians work situation and demonstrated that the type of ownership is a potential factor accounting for differences in working conditions. The findings provide an informative basis to find solutions improving physicians' work at German hospitals.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physicians

DOI

10.1186/1472-6963-9-148

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Nienhaus, A., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A. (2009). Physicians' working conditions and job satisfaction: does hospital ownership in Germany make a difference?. BMC health services research, 9, S. 148.

Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Theorell, T., Bech, P., Rugulies, R., Burr, H., Hyde, M. et al.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. Methods: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. Results: After adjusting for an indicator of previous depressive symptoms and covariates, conflicts with fellow workers in men were associated with depressive symptoms, whereas demands (men), support from fellow workers (women), and decision authority predicted lower scores. Conclusions: The study supports the theory that decision authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-009-0406-9

Reference

Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Theorell, T., Bech, P., Rugulies, R., Burr, H., Hyde, M. et al. (2009). Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 82 (8), S. 951–960.

Managers' Active Support when Implementing Teams. The Impact on Employee Well-Being

Nielsen, K., Randall, R.

Abstract

Research has shown that a variety of organisational change interventions can be effective but the powerful positive results of an intervention do not always generalise to other similar settings. Problems with implementation and a difficult intervention context have been shown to undermine the effectiveness of promising interventions. The impact that middle managers have on the change process and intervention outcomes has not been widely researched. This longitudinal intervention study was carried out in the elderly care sector in a large Danish local government organisation (N = 188), where poor social support, and lack of role clarity and meaningful work had been identified as significant problems. To tackle these problems, teamwork was implemented, with teams having some degree of self-management. It examined whether middle managers' active support for the intervention mediated its impact on working conditions, well-being and job satisfaction. Structural equation modelling showed that middle managers' active involvement in implementing the change partially mediated the relationship between working conditions at time 1 and time 2. Working conditions at time 2 were in turn related to time 2 job satisfaction and well-being. These results suggest that the degree to which employees perceive their middle managers to play an active role in implementing change is related to intervention outcomes.

Year

2009

Study type

Intervention

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1758-0854.2009.01016.x

Reference

Nielsen, K., Randall, R. (2009). Managers' Active Support when Implementing Teams. The Impact on Employee Well-Being. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1 (3), S. 374–390.

Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups: a representative population study

Ortega, A., Hogh, A., Pejtersen, J. H., Feveile, H., Olsen, O.

Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years. The response rate for the study was 60.4%. The study showed that 8.3% of the respondents had been bullied within the past year, 1.6% of the sample reported daily to weekly bullying. Co-workers (71.5%) and managers/supervisors (32.4%) were most often reported as perpetrators of bullying, but bullying from subordinates (6%) was also reported. We found significant differences in the prevalence of bullying for both occupational status and work process, a variable characterizing the employees main task in their job. Unskilled workers reported the highest prevalence of bullying, while managers/supervisors the lowest prevalence. People working with things (male-dominated occupations) and people working with clients/patients (female-dominated occupations) reported higher prevalence of bullying than people working with symbols or customers. No significant gender or age differences were found. These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-008-0339-8

Reference

Ortega, A., Hogh, A., Pejtersen, J. H., Feveile, H., Olsen, O. (2009). Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups: a representative population study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 82 (3), S. 417–426.

The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005

Pejtersen, J. H., Kristensen, T. S.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to elucidate the development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997–2005. Methods: The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys (N1=1062; N2=3517) of randomly selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was described by 19 scales and 6 single items. Results: Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace, less influence (job control), less ­possibilities for development (skill discretion), lower level of meaning of work, more role conflicts, decreased role clarity, reduced sense of community, less social support from colleagues, increased conflicts at work, more threats of violence and more slander and gossip. Conclusions: The psychosocial work environment in Denmark has deteriorated during the period 1997–2005. This deterioration was seen not just among certain groups of employees but in all subgroups, incorporating gender, age and socioeconomic status. The negative development of a country’s psychosocial work environment is worrying; as such, there is a strong need to change this negative trend.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.1334

Reference

Pejtersen, J. H., Kristensen, T. S. (2009). The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 35 (4), S. 284–293.

Distribution of effort-reward imbalance in Denmark and its prospective association with a decline in self-rated health

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Siegrist, J., dem Knesebeck, O. V., Bultmann, U., Bjorner, J. B., Burr, H.

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the distribution of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and to investigate its impact on self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: We studied 4977 employees who responded to a questionnaire in 2000, of which 3470 responded to a follow-up survey in 2005. Results: The highest (ie, most unfavorable) ERI ratio was found in executives in the public sector, social workers, managing clerks in the public sector, and medical secretaries. A one standard deviation increase of the ERI ratio predicted a 12% (95% confidence intervals = 1.01 to 1.24) decline in self-rated health after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions: This is the first study that identified job groups with a high exposure to ERI in a representative sample of a national workforce. ERI was a risk factor for a decline in self-rated health.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181a9086c

Reference

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Siegrist, J., dem Knesebeck, O. V., Bultmann, U., Bjorner, J. B., Burr, H. (2009). Distribution of effort-reward imbalance in Denmark and its prospective association with a decline in self-rated health. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 51 (8), S. 870–878.

Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

Rugulies, R., Norborg, M., Sorensen, T. S., Knudsen, L. E., Burr, H.

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. Methods: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative sample of Danish employees. The cross-sectional sample included 2614 participants (50% women) aged 18-59 years, of whom 263 had sleep disturbances. Of the 2351 participants initially free of sleep disturbances, 304 (12.9%) developed sleep disturbances during the 5-year follow-up. Data were analyzed with gender-stratified, multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for numerous covariates. Results: Cross-sectionally, a 1 S.D. increase in the ERI ratio was associated with sleep disturbances among both men [odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.27] and women (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.46-2.28). In the prospective analysis, a 1 S.D. increase of the ERI ratio at baseline predicted the onset of sleep disturbances among men (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03-1.87) but not among women (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.76-1.24). Conclusion: Among men, ERI is a risk factor for the development of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. Among women, an association between ERI and sleep disturbances was restricted to the cross-sectional sample. Improving psychosocial working conditions might reduce the risk of sleep disturbances and subsequently also help to prevent clinical disorders related to sleep disturbances.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.05.005

Reference

Rugulies, R., Norborg, M., Sorensen, T. S., Knudsen, L. E., Burr, H. (2009). Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study. Journal of psychosomatic research, 66 (1), S. 75–83.

Occupational stress and burnout of lawyers

Tsai, F.-J., Huang, W.-L., Chan, C.-C.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between burnout and occupational stress measured by demand-control support (DCS) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) models among lawyers. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 180 lawyers from 26 law firms in the Taipei Bar. The Chinese version of Karasek's job content questionnaire (C-JCQ) and the Chinese version of Siegrist's ERI questionnaire (C-ERI) were used to measure occupational stress, and the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (C-CBI) questionnaire was used to measure personal, work-related and client-related burnout. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between burnout and lawyers' occupational stress and job specialty adjusting for age, gender, marital status, work experience, working hours per day, firm size and the significant occupational stress of each model for the other. Results: Lawyers reported relatively higher scores in job control, psychological demands and effort, and high prevalence of self-perceived work stress. Litigious lawyers had higher decision authority and workplace social support, higher work-related burnout and higher client-related burnout than non-litigious lawyers. Personal burnout and work-related burnout were associated with high psychological demands, effort, and effort-reward ratio. Conclusions: High occupational stress was associated with high levels of personal and work-related burnout among lawyers.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Taiwan

Occupations

Lawyers

DOI

10.1539/joh.L8179

Reference

Tsai, F.-J., Huang, W.-L., Chan, C.-C. (2009). Occupational stress and burnout of lawyers. Journal of occupational health, 51 (5), S. 443–450.

Generating support from supervisors to their subordinates in organizations under external pressure: a multilevel, multisource study of support and reciprocation in Danish elder care

Winsløw, J. H., Nielsen, K., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aim: This paper is a report of a study investigating the association between the support experienced by supervisors from superiors and from fellow supervisors, on the one hand, and the support experienced by subordinates from their supervisors, on the other hand, in organizations under external pressure. Background: It is known from studies in other sectors that supervisors' support of workers is important for retaining them in the organization. From the literature on social exchange in the workplace it can be hypothesized that support from managers is one way to generate supervisor supportiveness towards their subordinates. Methods: A survey was conducted in 15 Danish local government services providing care for senior citizens. The data were collected in 2006. Results: Multilevel analyses revealed that the more supervisors felt supported by fellow supervisors, the more their subordinates felt supported by them. There was no statistically significant association between how much supervisors felt supported by their immediate superiors and how much supervisors' subordinates felt supported by them. Conclusions: Under conditions comparable to those of Danish elder care today, more is to be gained in terms of generating supportive behaviour towards subordinates from supervisors by empowering them to support each other rather than by increasing support from their superiors. Research is needed to identify methods and structures of mutual support between supervisors in the healthcare sector that will aid them in supporting their subordinates.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05122.x

Reference

Winsløw, J. H., Nielsen, K., Borg, V. (2009). Generating support from supervisors to their subordinates in organizations under external pressure: a multilevel, multisource study of support and reciprocation in Danish elder care. Journal of advanced nursing, 65 (12), S. 2649–2657.

Social patterns of pay systems and their associations with psychosocial job characteristics and burnout among paid employees in Taiwan

Yeh, W.-Y., Cheng, Y., Chen, C.-J.

Abstract

Today, performance-based pay systems, also known as variable pay systems, are commonly implemented in workplaces as a business strategy to improve workers' performance and reduce labor costs. However, their impact on workers' job stress and stress-related health outcomes has rarely been investigated. By utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the distribution of variable pay systems across socio-demographic categories and employment sectors. We also examined the associations of pay systems with psychosocial job characteristics (assessed by Karasek's Demand-Control model) and self-reported burnout status (measured by the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory). A total of 8906 men and 6382 women aged 25-65 years were studied, and pay systems were classified into three categories, i.e., fixed salary, performance-based pay (with a basic salary), and piece-rated or time-based pay (without a basic salary). Results indicated that in men, 57% of employees were given a fixed salary, 24% were given a performance-based pay, and 19% were remunerated through a piece-rated or time-based pay. In women, the distributions of the 3 pay systems were 64%, 20% and 15%, respectively. Among the three pay systems, employees earning through a performance-based pay were found to have the longest working hours, highest level of job control, and highest percentage of workers who perceived high stress at work. Those remunerated through a piece-rated/time-based pay were found to have the lowest job control, shortest working hours, highest job insecurity, lowest potential for career growth, and lowest job satisfaction. The results of multivariate regression analyses showed that employees earning through performance-based and piece-rated pay systems showed higher scores for personal burnout and work-related burnout, as compared to those who were given fixed salaries, after adjusting for age, education, marital status, employment grade, job characteristics, and family care workloads. As variable pay systems have gained in popularity, findings from this study call for more attention on the tradeoff between the widely discussed management advantages of such pay systems and the health burden they place on employees.

Year

2009

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Taiwan

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.031

Reference

Yeh, W.-Y., Cheng, Y., Chen, C.-J. (2009). Social patterns of pay systems and their associations with psychosocial job characteristics and burnout among paid employees in Taiwan. Social science & medicine, (1982) 68 (8), S. 1407–1415.

Invisible work, unseen hazards: The health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain

Ahonen, E. Q., Lopez-Jacob, M. J., Vazquez, M. L., Porthe, V., Gil-Gonzalez, D., Garcia, A. M. et al.

Abstract

Background: Household service work has been largely absent from occupational health studies. We examine the occupational hazards and health effects identified by immigrant women household service workers. Methods: Exploratory, descriptive study of 46 documented and undocumented immigrant women in household services in Spain, using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews. Data were separated for analysis by documentation status and sorted using a mixed-generation process. In a second phase of analysis, data on psychosocial hazards were organized using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire as a guide. Results: Informants reported a number of environmental, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards and corresponding health effects. Psychosocial hazards were especially strongly present in data. Data on reported hazards were similar by documentation status and varied by several emerging categories: whether participants were primarily cleaners or carers and whether they lived in or outside of the homes of their employers. Documentation status was relevant in terms of empowerment and bargaining, but did not appear to influence work tasks or exposure to hazards directly. Conclusions: Female immigrant household service workers are exposed to a variety of health hazards that could be acted upon by improved legislation, enforcement, and preventive workplace measures, which are discussed.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

Household service workers

DOI

10.1002/ajim.20710

Reference

Ahonen, E. Q., Lopez-Jacob, M. J., Vazquez, M. L., Porthe, V., Gil-Gonzalez, D., Garcia, A. M. et al. (2010). Invisible work, unseen hazards: The health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain. American journal of industrial medicine, 53 (4), S. 405–416.

The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers

Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R., Garde, A.H., Burr, H.

Abstract

Aims: Interpersonal relations at work as well as individual factors seem to play prominent roles in the modern labour market, and arguably also for the change in stress symptoms. The aim was to examine whether exposures in the psychosocial work environment predicted symptoms of cognitive stress in a sample of Danish knowledge workers (i.e. employees working with sign, communication or exchange of knowledge) and whether performance-based self-esteem had a main effect, over and above the work environmental factors. Methods: 349 knowledge workers, selected from a national, representative cohort study, were followed up with two data collections, 12 months apart. We used data on psychosocial work environment factors and cognitive stress symptoms measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), and a measurement of performance-based self-esteem. Effects on cognitive stress symptoms were analyzed with a GLM procedure with and without adjustment for baseline level. Results: Measures at baseline of quantitative demands, role conflicts, lack of role clarity, recognition, predictability, influence and social support from management were positively associated with cognitive stress symptoms 12 months later. After adjustment for baseline level of cognitive stress symptoms, follow-up level was only predicted by lack of predictability. Performance-based self-esteem was prospectively associated with cognitive stress symptoms and had an independent effect above the psychosocial work environment factors on the level of and changes in cognitive stress symptoms. Conclusions: The results suggest that both work environmental and individual characteristics should be taken into account in order to capture sources of stress in modern working life.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Knowledge workers

DOI

10.1177/1403494809352104

Reference

Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R., Garde, A.H., Burr, H. (2010). The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 81–89.

When workplace interventions lead to negative effects: learning from failures

Aust, B., Rugulies, R., Finken A., Jensen, C.

Abstract

Aims: To investigate if workplace interventions resulted in changes in the psychosocial work environment. Process evaluation was conducted to study the implementation process and to use this knowledge to understand the results. Methods: Seven intervention units (n = 128) and seven non-randomized reference units (n = 103) of a large hospital in Denmark participated in an intervention project with the goal of improving the psychosocial working conditions. The intervention consisted of discussion days for all staff, employee working groups, leader coaching, and activities to improve communication and cooperation. Measures of the psychosocial work environment were conducted before the start of the intervention and again after 16 months using 13 scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, version I (COPSOQ I). Results: In the intervention units there was a statistically significant worsening in six out of 13 work environment scales. The decrease was most pronounced for three scales that measure aspects of interpersonal relations and leadership. In addition, all three scales that measure aspects of work organization and job content decreased. In comparison, the reference group showed statistically significant changes in only two scales. Process evaluation revealed that a large part of the implementation failed and that different implicit theories were at play. Conclusions: Without the insights gained from process data the negative effects of this intervention could not be understood. Sometimes — as it seems happened in this study — more harm can be done by disappointing expectations than by not conducting an intervention.

Year

2010

Study type

Intervention

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Hospital staff

DOI

10.1177/1403494809354362

Reference

Aust, B., Rugulies, R., Finken A., Jensen, C. (2010). When workplace interventions lead to negative effects: learning from failures. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 106–119.

An interdisciplinary approach to teachers' voice disorders and psychosocial working conditions

Bermúdez de Alvear, R.M., Martínez-Arquero, G., Barón, F.J., Hernández-Mendo, A.

Abstract

Objectives: The goals of this epidemiological paper are focused on studying teachers’ vocal complaints, their voice pattern, and the impact of voice disorders on psychosocial working conditions. Patients: A representative stratified random sample of 282 teachers from kindergartens and elementary schools was studied. Two types of self-report questionnaires were applied: an inquiry about teachers’ occupational voice profile, and the adapted Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (ISTAS-21). Pearson’s χ2 test was performed to search for statistical associations. Results: 62.7% of subjects were experiencing occupational voice disorders; these teachers showed significantly worse psychosocial conditions than their healthy voice colleagues. Conclusions: Occupational voice disorders affect more than 60% of teachers and have an impact on their psychosocial working conditions. Interdisciplinary work is essential to shed light on these multifactor mechanisms and effects.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

Teachers

DOI

10.1159/000239060

Reference

Bermúdez de Alvear, R.M., Martínez-Arquero, G., Barón, F.J., Hernández-Mendo, A. (2010). An interdisciplinary approach to teachers' voice disorders and psychosocial working conditions. Folia phoniatrica et logopaedica : official organ of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP), 62 (1-2), S. 24–34.

Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

Bjorner, J. B., Pejtersen, J. H.

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). Methods: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a one-year register based follow up for long-term sickness absence. DIF was evaluated against age, gender, education, social class, public/private sector employment, and job type using ordinal logistic regression. DIE was evaluated against job satisfaction and self-rated health (using ordinal logistic regression), against depressive symptoms, burnout, and stress (using multiple linear regression), and against long-term sick leave (using a proportional hazards model). We used a cross-validation approach to counter the risk of significant results due to multiple testing. Results: Out of 1,052 tests, we found 599 significant instances of DIF/DIE, 69 of which showed both practical and statistical significance across two independent samples. Most DIF occurred for job type (in 20 cases), while we found little DIF for age, gender, education, social class and sector. DIE seemed to pertain to particular items, which showed DIE in the same direction for several outcome variables. Discussion: The results allowed a preliminary identification of items that have a positive impact on construct validity and items that have negative impact on construct validity. These results can be used to develop better shortform measures and to improve the conceptual framework, items and scales of the COPSOQ II. Conclusions: We conclude that tests of DIF and DIE are useful for evaluating construct validity.

Year

2010

Study type

Validation

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809352533

Reference

Bjorner, J. B., Pejtersen, J. H. (2010). Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 90–105.

Do dimensions from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict vitality and mental health over and above the job strain and effort-reward imbalance models?

Burr, H., Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R., Hannerz, H.

Abstract

Aims: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) comprises dimensions (emotional demands, demands of hiding emotions, meaning of work, quality of leadership, and predictability) that are not in the job strain or the effort—reward imbalance (ERI) models. The study aim was to investigate whether these dimensions explain changes in vitality and mental health over and above the job strain and ERI models. Methods: A cohort of 3552 employees in 2000 were followed up in 2005 (cohort participation of 51%). Regression analyses were carried out with mental health and vitality as dependent variables. A significance level of 0.01 was applied when comparing regression models. Results: Regarding mental health, both the full COPSOQ—ERI model (p = 0.005) and the full job strain—COPSOQ model (p = 0.01) were significantly better than the ERI and the job strain models. Regarding vitality, none of the full COPSOQ models (i.e. with new COPSOQ dimensions together with job strain or ERI respectively) was significantly better than the ERI (p = 0.03) or the job strain (p = 0.04) models. Emotional demands and low meaning of work predicted poor mental health and low vitality. Conclusions: In relation to mental health, new psychosocial risk factors have the potential to add to the predictive power of the job strain and ERI models. The current practice of including only items from the ERI and job strain models in public health studies should be reconsidered. Theories regarding the status of, for example, emotional demands and meaning of work should be developed and tested.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809353436

Reference

Burr, H., Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R., Hannerz, H. (2010). Do dimensions from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict vitality and mental health over and above the job strain and effort-reward imbalance models?. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 59–68.

Do positive work-related states mediate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover? A longitudinal analysis

Clausen, T., Borg, V.

Abstract

This study investigated whether positive work-related states—affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work—mediated the association between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover. A prospective cohort study was conducted among employees in eldercare services in Denmark. Employees no longer working in eldercare at follow-up were interviewed with questionnaires. Respondents to this questionnaire were coded as cases of turnover (n = 730) and were compared with employees who had not changed jobs during the follow-up period (n = 5,262). Data on positive work-related states and psychosocial work characteristics were measured at baseline in the cohort study. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate whether positive work-related states mediated the association between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover. Initial analyses showed that psychosocial work characteristics significantly predicted turnover. Subsequent analyses showed that affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work significantly reduced the risk of turnover, and the mediators attenuated the associations between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover. Accordingly, the results show that positive work-related states mediate the longitudinal association between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover. The results furthermore imply that turnover among staff in eldercare can be reduced by enhancing positive work-related states and improving the psychosocial work environment.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1037/a0021069

Reference

Clausen, T., Borg, V. (2010). Do positive work-related states mediate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and turnover? A longitudinal analysis. International Journal of Stress Management, 17 (4), S. 308–324.

Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Predictors of Affective Organisational Commitment. A Longitudinal Multi-Level Analysis of Occupational Well-Being

Clausen, T., Borg, V.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify longitudinal associations between psychosocial work characteristics and affective organisational commitment among 6,299 employees in the Danish eldercare services. Individual-level measures and group-level measures of psychosocial work characteristics were included in multi-level analyses. At the workgroup level, quality of leadership, influence at work, emotional demands, and work pace predicted affective organisational commitment at follow-up. At the individual level, quality of leadership, influence at work, team climate, role ambiguity, and work pace predicted affective organisational commitment at follow-up. Finally, a multi-level model including both individual- and group-level measures showed that quality of leadership measured at the group level and influence at work and quality of leadership measured at the individual level contributed to predicting affective organisational commitment at follow-up, while adjusting for baseline levels of affective organisational commitment. The results thus imply that affective organisational commitment is conditioned by individual and contextual factors in the psychosocial work environment and that multi-level models add to our understanding of complex organisational phenomena. As affective organisational commitment can be considered an important constituent of occupational well-being, implications for interventions in the psychosocial work environment to increase affective organisational commitment are also discussed.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01031.x

Reference

Clausen, T., Borg, V. (2010). Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Predictors of Affective Organisational Commitment. A Longitudinal Multi-Level Analysis of Occupational Well-Being. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being.

Positive work-related states and long-term sickness absence: a study of register-based outcomes

Clausen, T., Christensen, K. B., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the association between positive work-related states and long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The positive states that were investigated were commitment to the work-place (CW) and experience of meaning of work (MW). Methods: This association was investigated using Poisson regression analysis. Data consisted of a merge between Danish register data on sickness absence compensation and survey data collected among 9,560 employees in the Danish eldercare sector. Results: CW and MW were significantly associated with LTSA. Employees experiencing low MW had a significantly increased risk of LTSA for more than two and eight weeks, when adjusted for psychosocial work characteristics, work-time arrangements and physical workload. Compared to employees with low and high CW, employees with medium CW had a significantly decreased risk of LTSA for more than eight weeks, when adjusted for psychosocial work characteristics, work-time arrangements and physical workload. Furthermore, employees with low CW had an increased risk of LTSA for more than two weeks, but this association became borderline insignificant when adjusted for psychosocial work characteristics, work-time arrangements and physical workload. The analyses also revealed an interaction effect between CW and MW in predicting LTSA for more than eight weeks. Conclusions: CW and MW are associated with LTSA. Against our expectations, however, we found that high levels of CW and MW were not protective against LTSA. Instead, low levels of MW proved decisive in predicting LTSA, and medium levels of CW had a protective effect on LTSA for more than eight weeks.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1177/1403494809352105

Reference

Clausen, T., Christensen, K. B., Borg, V. (2010). Positive work-related states and long-term sickness absence: a study of register-based outcomes. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 51–58.

Coping with bullying in the workplace

Hogh, A., Dofradottir, A.

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the 1-year prevalence of bullying in the form of repeated exposure to slander and/or nasty teasing in Danish workplaces, and to analyse whether respondents subjected to bullying use the same coping strategies as respondents who are not subjected to bullying. The results show that approximately 2% of the Danish employees are subjected to bullying at work. We compared the use of coping strategies in three groups: a non-exposed group, a somewhat exposed group, and a very exposed group (i.e., bullied). The results showed no linear association between the three groups, but a difference between being exposed and not exposed. The results seem to indicate that it is not necessarily the quantity of the negative acts that cause the change in behaviour but more the fact of being exposed to such acts.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1080/13594320143000825

Reference

Hogh, A., Dofradottir, A. (2010). Coping with bullying in the workplace. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10 (4), S. 485–495.

Prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck-shoulder and low-back pain

Holtermann, A., Hansen, J.V., Burr, H., Sogaard, K.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck–shoulder or low-back pain. Methods: In 2000, a representative sample of Danish employees (N=5036) rated their average pain intensity in the neck–shoulder and low-back during the last three months on a 10-point scale; using a questionnaire, they also reported on physical and psychosocial work factors, health behavior, work ability and self-efficacy. Employees reporting pain intensity of ≥4 were considered to have musculoskeletal pain. As a result, we defined two populations to be included in our analyses: people with pain in the neck–shoulder (N=848) and low-back (N=676) regions. Data on long-term sickness absence of ≥3 weeks for the period 2001–2002 were attained from the Danish national register of social transfer payments. Results: One fifth of employees with neck–shoulder and low-back pain experienced long-term sickness absence during the two-year follow-up. Among employees with neck–shoulder and low-back pain, respectively, the main significant risk factors were (i) pain intensity [hazard ratio (HR)=1.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02–1.24 and HR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.26] and (ii) heavy physical work (HR=1.68, 95% CI 1.21–2.33 and HR=1.41 95% CI 1.00–2.01). Conclusion: Preventive initiatives for long-term sickness absence should aim to reduce pain intensity and heavy physical work among employees with neck–shoulder and low-back pain.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

Reference

Holtermann, A., Hansen, J.V., Burr, H., Sogaard, K. (2010). Prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck-shoulder and low-back pain. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 36 (1), S. 34–41.

The Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO) - evaluation of a new method for the assessment of working conditions within a cross-sectional study

Klussmann, A., Steinberg, U., Liebers, F., Gebhardt, H., Rieger, M. A.

Abstract

Background: Upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders are common in the working population. The economic and social impact of such disorders is considerable. Long-time, dynamic repetitive exposure of the hand-arm system during manual handling operations (MHO) alone or in combination with static and postural effort are recognised as causes of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. The assessment of these manual work tasks is crucial to estimate health risks of exposed employees. For these work tasks, a new method for the assessment of the working conditions was developed by the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) and released as a draft in the year 2007. The draft of the so-called Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO) was developed in analogy with the existing KIM for Lifting/Holding/Carrying (KIM-LHC) and Pulling/Pushing (KIM-PP) of loads. The KIM-MHO is designed to fill the gap existing in risk assessment of manual work processes, since the existing KIMs deal only with manual handling of loads.This research project focused on the following: - Examination of the validity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO comparing expert ratings with the results of the observations. - Examination of the objectivity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO applied by different examiners. - Examination of the criterion validity of the risk assessment provided by KIM-MHO with respect to the association between exposure and the occurrence and prevalence of health related outcomes. Methods/Design: To determine the objectivity and validity of workplace assessment, the KIM-MHO is applied by occupational health and safety officers at different workplaces involving manual handling operations.To determine the criterion validity of risk assessment, a survey of employees at different workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires and interviews about symptoms in the neck and upper extremities. In addition, physical examinations of these employees following a standardised medical diagnostic procedure are also carried out. Discussion: This research project will provide scientific evaluation of the new KIM-MHO and, if necessary, indicate areas for modification to improve this new method for assessment of the health risk of manual handling operations at diverse workplaces.

Year

2010

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1186/1471-2474-11-272

Reference

Klussmann, A., Steinberg, U., Liebers, F., Gebhardt, H., Rieger, M. A. (2010). The Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO) - evaluation of a new method for the assessment of working conditions within a cross-sectional study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 11, S. 272.

A questionnaire is more than a questionnaire

Kristensen, T. S.

Abstract

This special issue of the Scandinavian Journal of Public Health is devoted to articles on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). I have been asked to participate with a personal contribution and have been given the freedom to write whatever I find appropriate. My main message in this article is that a questionnaire is not just a questionnaire. A questionnaire, such as COPSOQ, is a tool for creating theoretical insight, an eye opener for employees and employers, a way to create a new language, a bridge for building long lasting ties between researchers and workplaces, a way to give legitimacy to the field of psychosocial factors at work, an instrument for creating new personal and professional friendships, and – last but not least – a tool for improvement of the working conditions for thousands of employees and for increasing the productivity of the companies. I cannot cover all these aspects in detail but I will touch upon most of them in the following.

Year

2010

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1177/1403494809354437

Reference

Kristensen, T. S. (2010). A questionnaire is more than a questionnaire. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 149–155.

Bidirectional Assessment of Stress, job satisfaction and work ability of Educators in day care centres: a real-time observation study - the study protocol (BASE)

Kusma, B., Nienhaus, A., Spallek, M., Quarcoo, D., Groneberg, D. A., Mache, S.

Abstract

Background: Occupational demands of educators are not very well researched. Nevertheless their work is subject to several requirements. Whether these demands have an effect on the work ability and the health status of employees has also not been examined. Furthermore it is unclear if the ownership type of day care centres have an influence on job satisfaction and work ability of the pedagogical staff and what kind of resources do exist. Previous studies were mainly based on questionnaire data. Objective data does not exist. Therefore the aim of this investigation is to collect precise data relating to work of educators. Methods: Effects of different types of ownership of day care centres on job satisfaction and work ability of educators will be assessed with the help of objective real time studies in combination with multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion: The present study is the first of its kind. Up to now there are no computer-based real time studies on workflow of pedagogical staff with regard to assess their work-related stress. Following an exhaustive documentation of educators work processes the day-to-day task can be estimated and approaches for prevention can be developed. This can substantially contribute to an overall improvement of child care in Germany.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Educators

DOI

10.1186/1745-6673-5-16

Reference

Kusma, B., Nienhaus, A., Spallek, M., Quarcoo, D., Groneberg, D. A., Mache, S. (2010). Bidirectional Assessment of Stress, job satisfaction and work ability of Educators in day care centres: a real-time observation study - the study protocol (BASE). Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 5, S. 16.

Psychopathology, defence mechanisms, and the psychosocial work environment

Larsen, A., Boggild, H., Mortensen, J. T., Foldager, L., Hansen, J., Christensen, A. et al.

Abstract

Background: The body of evidence verifies the predictive value of certain work characteristics for mental health problems and that various levels of adaptation mechanisms are employed when dealing with adversity. Data on the relationships between employees’ mental health status, their perceptions of work, and their psychological defences are scarce. Aims: To examine the role that personal defences play in the relationship between psychiatric symptoms among working people and their working environment. Methods: Nine hundred and seventy six employees (mean age = 42.4 years, SD = 11.3) participated in a questionnaire study that included the Defence Style Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist 90 revised, and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Results: Data showed that greater maturity of psychological defences was associated with higher level of psychological functioning and there were strong associations between presence of psychopathology and the three defence clusters. Results indicated a strong positive correlation between the mature defence style and the perception of a satisfactory workplace. There was no interaction between psychopathology and defences in relation to work environment. Conclusion: Psychopathology and defences were significantly associated with work conditions, which could suggest that adaptation mechanisms and psychopathology are two independent forms of adjustment to the rapidly changing world of work.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/0020764008099555

Reference

Larsen, A., Boggild, H., Mortensen, J. T., Foldager, L., Hansen, J., Christensen, A. et al. (2010). Psychopathology, defence mechanisms, and the psychosocial work environment. The International journal of social psychiatry, 56 (6), S. 563–577.

Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: results from the longitudinal Chinese NEXT study

Li, J., Fu, H., Hu, Y., Shang, L., Wu, Y., Kristensen, T. S. et al.

Abstract

Aims: A shortage of nurses happens not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries, such as in China, but the nurse turnover here makes the situation worse. Why do Chinese nurses want to leave the nursing profession? Our hypothesis is that unfavourable psychosocial work environment could predict nurses' intention to leave (ITL). Methods: Collaborating with the EU NEXT study (Nurses' Early eXit sTudy), the longitudinal study was conducted in China, and the psychosocial work environment was measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). A total of 3,088 registered female nurses working in hospitals were eligible for the baseline analyses by multivariate logistic regression, and 1,521 for the one-year follow-up analyses by multivariate Poisson regression. Results: A wide range of psychosocial factors at work--in particular, increased emotional demands, decreased meaning of work, decreased commitment to the workplace, and decreased job satisfaction--were associated with ITL in both baseline analyses and prospective analyses after adjusting for numerous confounders. Conclusions: The findings suggest that unfavourable psychosocial work environment predicts ITL in Chinese nurses. Improvements in the psychosocial work environment may be helpful in retention of the nursing workforce.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

China

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1177/1403494809354361

Reference

Li, J., Fu, H., Hu, Y., Shang, L., Wu, Y., Kristensen, T. S. et al. (2010). Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: results from the longitudinal Chinese NEXT study. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 69–80.

Psychosocial risk exposures and labour management practices. An exploratory approach

Llorens, C., Alos, R., Cano, E., Font, A., Jodar, P., Lopez, V., et al.

Abstract

Aim: The purpose was to explore the relationship between psychosocial risk exposures and labour management practices (LMP), as indicators of work organization and pertinent features for primary preventive intervention. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of salaried working population in Spain (n = 7,612). Information was obtained in 2004-2005 using a standardized questionnaire administered through personal interviews at the household. Questions on working conditions were used to establish LMP indicators and the psychosocial exposures data were obtained on the basis of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) I (ISTAS21). A multivariate description was performed through multiple correspondence analysis, and associations between LMPs and psychosocial exposures were assessed by ordinal logistic analysis adjusting for age and sex. Results: Correspondence analysis showed a good-bad coherent pattern regarding both psychosocial dimension and LMPs, though several LMPs categories were placed in the centre. Among the 14 possible associations of each psychosocial scale with LMP variables, several scales showed significant associations with more than eight LMP variables. Most relevant results referred to the LMP variable ‘‘Consultative and delegative participation in methods’’. Conclusions: In line with previous research, psychosocial exposures were associated with LMP. LMP may constitute a step on a pathway from work organization to health. Our exploratory work suggested that good psychosocial exposures were related to participatory working methods, being hired with a permanent labour contract, not being made to feel easily replaceable, having superiors with non-authoritarian and non-aggressive manners, not being threatened with dismissal, upward functional mobility, being paid according to the number of working hours and occupation, working between 31 and 40 hours per week and in regular morning shifts. Hence, the more these features became part of LMP in the workplace, the better the psychosocial work environment would be.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809354363

Reference

Llorens, C., Alos, R., Cano, E., Font, A., Jodar, P., Lopez, V., et al. (2010). Psychosocial risk exposures and labour management practices. An exploratory approach. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 125–136.

Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

Madsen, I. E. H., Diderichsen, F., Burr, H., Rugulies, R.

Abstract

Objectives: Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who “work with people” (ie, do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures. Methods: Self-reported data from the Danish work environment cohort study in 2000 were linked with the use of antidepressants between 2001–2006. We included 4958 respondents in our study after excluding those with severe depressive symptoms or use of antidepressants at baseline. Results: Compared to employees doing non-person-related work, the use of antidepressants was increased statistically significantly for healthcare workers and statistically non-significantly for educational workers. The use of antidepressants was not elevated for social or customer service workers, or those doing “other” types of person-related work. The increased risks of antidepressant-use for healthcare and educational workers were attenuated when adjusted for emotional demands at work. Conclusions: The results imply that healthcare and educational workers in Denmark are at increased risk of depression and that this risk is partly mediated by the high emotional demands of the work.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.3049

Reference

Madsen, I. E. H., Diderichsen, F., Burr, H., Rugulies, R. (2010). Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 36 (6), S. 435–444.

Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment

Malloy, T., Penprase, B.

Abstract

Aim: This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Background: Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. Methods: The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. Results: There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P < 0.01 to r = 0.18, P < 0.05. Nurses divided into groups based on transformational leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. Conclusions: This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. Implications for nursing management: The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

United States of America

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01094.x

Reference

Malloy, T., Penprase, B. (2010). Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment. Journal of nursing management, 18 (6), S. 715–725.

Psychosocial work environment and its association with socioeconomic status. A comparison of Spain and Denmark

Moncada, S., Pejtersen, J. H., Navarro, A., Llorens, C., Burr, H., Hasle, P., Bjorner, J. B.

Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark. Methods: Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004–05 and based on national representative samples of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales. Results: A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing a strong interaction effect between socioeconomic status and country. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status is related to psychosocial work environment and some adverse psychosocial conditions tend to cluster in lower socioeconomic status groups in both Spain and Denmark. This effect could be modified by a country’s characteristics, such as economic and labour market structures, normative regulations and industrial relations including work organization. Hence, preventive strategies to reduce social inequalities in working conditions should consider the combination of actions at the macro and micro levels.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark, Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809353825

Reference

Moncada, S., Pejtersen, J. H., Navarro, A., Llorens, C., Burr, H., Hasle, P., Bjorner, J. B. (2010). Psychosocial work environment and its association with socioeconomic status. A comparison of Spain and Denmark. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 137–148.

Double presence, paid work, and domestic-family work

Moreno, N., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Carrasquer, P.,

Abstract

Double presence, which is understood as the need to respond simultaneously to the demands of paid and domestic-family work, mostly affects women and may negatively affect their health. Our hypothesis is that double presence increases as a function of the demands of domestic-family work, but is also associated with management practices related to the availability of time for paid work, prolonged and atypical work schedules, and heightened demands. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of the salaried population in Spain. Information was gathered through a standardized questionnaire administered through home visits. Statistical analysis shows a relationship between double presence and the demands of increased work schedules, rotating schedules, irregular schedules, and exposure to psychosocial risks (high quantitative and emotional psychological demands). Double presence should be considered as a variable in the evaluation of psychosocial risks, and collective bargaining should consider negotiating clauses that can impact it positively.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.2190/NS.20.4.h

Reference

Moreno, N., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Carrasquer, P., (2010). Double presence, paid work, and domestic-family work. New solutions : a journal of environmental and occupational health policy:, NS 20 (4), S. 511–526.

The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in Germany: from the validation of the instrument to the formation of a job-specific database of psychosocial factors at work

Nübling, M., Hasselhorn, H.-M.

Abstract

The German version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was established and tested in a sample of 2561 employees in order to: (a) assess the questionnaires' psychometric properties; and (b) develop an appropriate instrument to use in the assessment of psychosocial risk factors. A shortened version of the instrument was developed, reducing the number of items from 141 to 87. With this, a database has been established since 2005. In a cooperation model between science (Freiburg Research Centre of Occupational and Social Medicine) and companies or organizations, new COPSOQ data are added to the dynamically growing database with profession-specific profiles of psychosocial factors at work. In return, companies can compare their results with job-related data in the database, facilitating the interpretation of their results and the implementation of improvement measures. The COPSOQ database has reached > 25,000 respondents. Ongoing projects will expand the German COPSOQ database and include representative samples. Furthermore, a job exposure matrix for psychosocial factors at work will be constructed in 2009. Finally, in several projects, a first assessment has been followed by efforts to improve the problematic areas of psychosocial working conditions.

Year

2010

Study type

Validation

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809353652

Reference

Nübling, M., Hasselhorn, H.-M. (2010). The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in Germany: from the validation of the instrument to the formation of a job-specific database of psychosocial factors at work. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 120–124.

Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care

Nübling, M., Vomstein, M., Schmidt, S. G., Gregersen, S., Dulon, M., Nienhaus, A.,

Abstract

Background: Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. Methods: The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain.Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p < 0.01, two-tailed) and a difference of at least 5 points in mean values were defined as the relevant threshold. Results: In total 889 respondents from 36 institutions took part in the study. 412 worked in Home Care (HC), 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH), 164 in other professions (e.g. administration). Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195) and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168), the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity.A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of negative evaluation of psychosocial factors concerning demands was related to the amount of working hours per week and the number of on-call duties. Conclusions: Compared to employees in general hospital care and the COPSOQ overall mean value across all professions, geriatric care employees and especially home care workers evaluate their psychosocial working situation more positive for most aspects. However, this seems partly due to the very high proportion of part-time workers. Critical results for the two study groups are the relatively high job insecurity in nursing homes and the lack of social relations for the HCrs.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Care workers

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-10-428

Reference

Nübling, M., Vomstein, M., Schmidt, S. G., Gregersen, S., Dulon, M., Nienhaus, A., (2010). Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care. BMC public health, 10, S. 428.

A descriptive study on immigrant workers in the elderly care sector

Ortega, A., Gomes Carneiro, I., Flyvholm, M.-A.

Abstract

The present descriptive study seeks to explore the differences in terms of psychosocial work characteristics and health & well-being indicators among Danes, Western and Non-western immigrants working in the elderly care sector; and to identify differences in the association patterns between these psychosocial work characteristics and health & well-being across these three groups. The study was based on a large-scale survey of the elderly care sector in Denmark with 78% response rate. Results show that Non-western immigrants had more depression symptoms, poorer quality of sleep and more client-related burnout than their Western immigrants and Danish colleagues. All in all, the associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health and well-being were much stronger among Danes than among immigrant workers and particularly weak among Non-western immigrants.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1007/s10903-009-9257-4

Reference

Ortega, A., Gomes Carneiro, I., Flyvholm, M.-A. (2010). A descriptive study on immigrant workers in the elderly care sector. Journal of immigrant and minority health, 12 (5), S. 699–706.

Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

Pejtersen, J. H., Bjorner, J. B., Hasle, P.

Abstract

Aim: To determine minimally important differences (MIDs) for scales in the first version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Methods: Data were taken from two separate studies: a national population survey (N = 1062), and an intervention study at 14 workplaces (N = 1505). On the basis of the population survey, the MID for each COPSOQ scale was calculated as one-half of a standard deviation (0.5 SD). For the core COPSOQ scales on ''Quantitative demands'', ''Influence at work'', ''Predictability'', ''Social support (from colleagues and supervisors, respectively)'', and ''Job satisfaction'', the MIDs were evaluated in the intervention study, where score differences for the scales were linked to the respondents' global self-evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The scales were scored from 0 to 100 in both studies. Results: The MIDs calculated as 0.5 SD were, on average, 9.2 (range 6.8-14.9) for the long version scales, and 10.8 (range 7.6-14.9) for the medium-length version scales. The analysis of the self-evaluated changes on the scale scores for the core COPSOQ scales showed that the anchor-based estimates of MID were generally lower than 0.5 SD. Conclusions: We recommend the following MID values for the COPSOQ scales: ''Quantitative demands'', 0.3 SD; ''Influence'', 0.2 SD; ''Predictability'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from colleagues'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from supervisor'', 0.7 SD; and ''Job satisfaction'', 0.4 SD. For all other COPSOQ scales, where we do not have anchor-based results, we recommend the conventional MID value of 0.5 SD.

Year

2010

Study type

Other

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809347024

Reference

Pejtersen, J. H., Bjorner, J. B., Hasle, P. (2010). Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 33–41.

The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

Pejtersen, J. H., Kristensen, T. S., Borg, V., Bjorner, J. B.

Abstract

Aims: The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Methods: The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity of the new scales was tested. Results: The development of COPSOQ II resulted in a questionnaire with 41 scales and 127 items. New scales on values at the workplace were introduced including scales on Trust, Justice and Social inclusiveness. Scales on Variation, Work pace, Recognition, Work-family conflicts and items on offensive behaviour were also added. New scales regarding health symptoms included: Burnout, Stress, Sleeping troubles and Depressive symptoms. In general, the new scales showed good criteria validity. All in all, 57% of the items of COPSOQ I were retained in COPSOQ II. Conclusions: The COPSOQ I concept has been further developed and new validated scales have been included.

Year

2010

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1177/1403494809349858

Reference

Pejtersen, J. H., Kristensen, T. S., Borg, V., Bjorner, J. B. (2010). The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 8–24.

Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Pejtersen, J. H.

Abstract

Aims: To analyse the predictive validity of 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) with regard to risk of sickness absence. Methods: The study population consisted of 3188 wage earners (52% women) from a representative sample of Danish residents. Participants received the long version of the COPSOQ II in autumn and winter 2004-2005, including 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the domains ''Demands at work'', ''Work organization and job contents'', and ''Interpersonal relations and leadership''. The study endpoint was register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in the 1-year period following completion of the COPSOQ II. Associations between COPSOQ scales at baseline and sickness absence at follow-up were analysed with Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, prevalence of a health problem at baseline, and occupational grade. Results: Sickness absence during follow-up was predicted by a one standard deviation increase on the scales of cognitive demands (hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.37), emotional demands (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50), and role conflicts (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.52). After applying adjustment for multiple testing, the effect of emotional demands and of role conflict remained statistically significant, but not the effect of cognitive demands. Conclusions: Selected psychosocial work environment factors from the COPSOQ predict register-based sickness absence in the Danish workforce.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809346873

Reference

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Pejtersen, J. H. (2010). Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 42–50.

Reliability of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

Thorsen, S. V., Bjorner, J. B.

Abstract

Aims: Reliabilities of the work environment questionnaire Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) have previously been estimated by Cronbach's alpha, but since the internal consistency assumption may not apply to all COPSOQ scales, Cronbach's alpha may underestimate true reliability. This study aims to evaluate reliability in a test-retest design. Methods: We analyzed postal questionnaire data from 349 persons (of whom 283 were employees) who completed two forms with a median interval of 22 (range 6-65) days between baseline and follow-up. Test-retest reliabilities were estimated by the intraclass correlation (ICC). For scales where the internal consistency assumption was theoretically plausible, reliabilities were also estimated by Cronbach's alpha and by Green's test-retest alpha. Results: With one exception, the ICC estimated reliabilities of the COPSOQ scales were adequate or good (range 0.70-0.89). A scale concerning mutual trust between employees had a low reliability of 0.64. Among the scales where the internal consistency assumption was plausible, Cronbach's alpha was adequate or good (0.75-0.85) for seven out of eight scales. Green's retest alpha was adequate or good for six out of eight scales (0.72-0.81). Conclusions: Standard criteria for acceptable intraclass correlation reliability were achieved for all COPSOQ scales but one. The test-retest design and intraclass correlation appears to be more appropriate than Cronbach's alpha for assessing the reliability of psychosocial work environment scales.

Year

2010

Study type

Validation

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494809349859

Reference

Thorsen, S. V., Bjorner, J. B. (2010). Reliability of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Scandinavian journal of public health, 38 (3 Suppl), S. 25–32.

Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators

Tsai, F.-J., Chan, C.-C.

Abstract

This study aims to examine the associations between occupational stress and burnout among judges and procurators. The Chinese versions of the job content questionnaire (JCQ), Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI), and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) were administered to examine occupational stress and personal, work-related, and client-related burnout among 211 judicial officers, comprising 87 judges and 98 procurators, in Taiwan. Logistic regression was applied to determine the association between burnout and occupational stress among judges and procurators, adjusting for potential confounders of age, gender, marriage, number of children, work experience, working hours, and the significant occupational stress scale of each model for the other. The judicial officers with average age of 36.84 years and work experience of 8.57 years had high averaging scores of job control (70.31), psychological demand (32.23), effort (18.98), reward (48.37), and overcommitment (17.04) as well as personal (49.97), work-related (51.36), and client-related (43.57) burnout. The high psychological demand, effort, and overcommitment were significantly associated with both personal and work-related burnout, while the low workplace social support was significantly associated with client-related burnout among the judicial officers. The judges had a significant higher risk of client-related burnout than the procurators. In general, occupational stress was associated with personal and work-related burnout for both judges and prosecutors. Client-related burnout was more common for judicial officers with low social support and the judges.

Year

2010

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Taiwan

Occupations

Judges

DOI

10.1007/s00420-009-0454-1

Reference

Tsai, F.-J., Chan, C.-C. (2010). Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 83 (2), S. 133–142.

The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers

Vives, A., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Muntaner, C., et al.

Abstract

Background: Despite the fact that labour market flexibility has resulted in an expansion of precarious employment in industrialised countries, to date there is limited empirical evidence concerning its health consequences. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) is a newly developed, theory-based, multidimensional questionnaire specifically devised for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. Objectives: To assess the acceptability, reliability and construct validity of EPRES in a sample of waged and salaried workers in Spain. Methods: A sample of 6968 temporary and permanent workers from a population-based survey carried out in 2004-2005 was analysed. The survey questionnaire was interviewer administered and included the six EPRES subscales, and measures of the psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ ISTAS21) and perceived general and mental health (SF-36). Results: A high response rate to all EPRES items indicated good acceptability; Cronbach's alpha coefficients, over 0.70 for all subscales and the global score, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability; exploratory factor analysis using principal axis analysis and varimax rotation confirmed the six-subscale structure and the theoretical allocation of all items. Patterns across known groups and correlation coefficients with psychosocial work environment measures and perceived health demonstrated the expected relations, providing evidence of construct validity. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence in support of the psychometric properties of EPRES, which appears to be a promising tool for the measurement of employment precariousness in public health research.

Year

2010

Study type

Validation

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/oem.2009.048967

Reference

Vives, A., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Muntaner, C., et al. (2010). The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. Occupational and environmental medicine, 67 (8), S. 548–555.

Adaptation of questionnaire measuring working conditions and health problems among Iranian nursing personnel

Arsalani, N., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Ghaffari, M., Josephson, M., Lagerstrom, M.

Abstract

Purpose: To adapt a questionnaire in the Persian language measuring working conditions and health problems among nursing personnel. A further aim was to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Methods: The adapted questionnaire was based on three well-established questionnaires. Physical working conditions items were from Nurse Early Exit Study. Psychosocial working conditions scales were included from Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire which contains two scales on general and mental health as well. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was the origin of the musculoskeletal disorders questions. During the culture adaptation process, an expert panel method was used. To achieve equivalence between the sources and target version, some changes were made by the expert panel. Then the questionnaire was examined in the field for face validity and construct validity (n = 92) among Iranian nursing personnel from two hospitals. Construct validity was assessed using a priori hypothesized correlations of the outcomes with exposures. Finally the adaptation process was completed by reliability assessment using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Results: The construct validity result was the correlation of the health outcome with the work-related exposure (physical rs = .71 and psychosocial rs = .66). In the reliability assessment, Cronbach’s alpha and ICC were .60 and .70 respectively. Conclusion: The findings show that the adapted questionnaire has an acceptable conceptual structure and provides reliable information from the nursing profession. Consequently, the questionnaire is applicable to work situation studies among nurses and other health care workers.

Year

2011

Study type

Validation

Country

Iran

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1016/j.anr.2011.09.004

Reference

Arsalani, N., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Ghaffari, M., Josephson, M., Lagerstrom, M. (2011). Adaptation of questionnaire measuring working conditions and health problems among Iranian nursing personnel. Asian nursing research, 5 (3), S. 177–182.

Measurement of social support, community and trust in dentistry

Berthelsen, H., Pejtersen, J. H., Soderfeldt, B.

Abstract

Background and aim: Relationships among people at work have previously been found to contribute to the perception of having a good work. The aim of the present paper was to develop scales measuring aspects of social support, trust, and community among dentists, and to evaluate psychometric properties of the scales. Material and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark. The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Component Analysis was applied to 14 items and scales were established based on the resulting factors. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) with respect to gender, nationality and employment sector was analysed using ordinal logistic regression methods. Construct validity was assessed in relation to self-rated health and a range of work satisfaction outcomes. Results: The percentage of missing values on the items was low (range 0.7%–3.8%). Two scales (range 0–100) were established to measure ‘Community with Trust’(nine items, mean = 79.2 [SD = 13.4], Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89) and ‘Collegial Support’(five items, mean = 70.4 [SD = 20.8], Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). DIF of only minor importance was found which supported cultural equivalence. The two scales were weakly positively correlated with each other. ‘Community with Trust’ was in general more strongly correlated with work satisfaction variables than ‘Collegial Support’ was. Conclusions: Stability and internal consistency of the scales were considered as satisfactory. Content validity and construct validity were considered as good. Further validation in other populations is recommended.

Year

2011

Study type

Validation

Country

Sweden

Occupations

Dentistry

DOI

10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00593.x

Reference

Berthelsen, H., Pejtersen, J. H., Soderfeldt, B. (2011). Measurement of social support, community and trust in dentistry. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 39 (4), S. 289–299.

Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry

Berthelsen, H., Soderfeldt, B., Harris, R., Pejtersen, J. H., Bergstrom, K., Hjalmers, K., Ordell, S.

Abstract

Objectives. The aim of the study was to better understand the associations between work factors and professional support among dentists (Collegial Support) as well as the sense of being part of a work community characterized by trust (Community with Trust). Methods. A questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the members of dental associations in Sweden and Denmark in 2008. The response rate was 68%. Two models with the outcome variables Collegial Support and being part of a Community with Trust were built using multiple hierarchical linear regression. Demographic background factors, work factors, managerial factors and factors relating to objectives and to values characterizing climate of the practice were all introduced as blocks into the models. Results. A different pattern emerged for Collegial Support than for Community with Trust, indicating different underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (I) Female, married/cohabitant, collegial network outside the practice, common breaks, formalized managerial education of leader and a climate characterized by professional values, which were positively associated with Collegial Support, while number of years as a dentist and being managerially responsible were negatively associated. (II) Common breaks, decision authority and a climate characterized by professional values were positively associated with Community with Trust. Conclusion. A professionally-oriented practice climate and having common breaks at work were strongly associated with both outcome variables. The study underlined the importance of managing dentistry in a way which respects the professional ethos of dentists.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden, Denmark

Occupations

Dentistry

DOI

10.3109/00016357.2011.568966

Reference

Berthelsen, H., Soderfeldt, B., Harris, R., Pejtersen, J. H., Bergstrom, K., Hjalmers, K., Ordell, S. (2011). Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry. Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 69 (6), S. 343–354.

Work environment as predictor of long-term sickness absence: linkage of self-reported DWECS data with the DREAM register

Burr, H., Pedersen, J., Hansen, J. V.

Abstract

Introduction: The present overview discusses ten papers dealing with four research topics using self-reported work environment in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS) linked with register data on long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalisation (DREAM). Research topics: Research relied on self-reported data among 3000—5000 employees linked with registered LTSA data. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models. Risk groups: Kindergarten teachers and daycare workers were at high risk for LTSA. Risk factors: Mainly physical exposures but also psychosocial factors were risk factors for LTSA. Attributable fractions: A quarter of LTSA spells could be attributed to the physical work environment. Most of the association between social class and LTSA was explained by physical work environment and smoking. Mechanisms: Depressive symptoms, severe pain in hands, and low back and pain intensity were risk factors for LTSA. Only in work sites with traditional leadership did health problems predict LTSA. Conclusion: The linking of DWECS with DREAM has made it possible to estimate the importance of work environment factors for LTSA. Future research should deal with possible risk factors such as health problems and organisational factors.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494811401480

Reference

Burr, H., Pedersen, J., Hansen, J. V. (2011). Work environment as predictor of long-term sickness absence: linkage of self-reported DWECS data with the DREAM register. Scandinavian journal of public health, 39 (7 Suppl), S. 147–152.

Job demands, job resources and meaning at work

Clausen, T., Borg, V.

Abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to identify longitudinal associations between job demands, job resources and experience of meaning at work. Design/methodolgy/approach: Using data from a longitudinal survey study among 6,299 employees in Danish eldercare who were divided into 301 work‐groups, experience of meaning at work was predicted from a series of job demands and job resources measured at individual level and group level. Findings: A combination of individual‐level and group‐level measures of job demands and job resources contributed to predicting meaning at work. Meaning at work at follow‐up was predicted by meaning at work at baseline, role ambiguity, quality of leadership, and influence at work at individual level and emotional demands at group level. Individual‐level measures of job demands and job resources proved stronger predictors of meaning at work than group‐level measures. Research limitations/implications: Psychosocial job demands and job resources predict experience of meaning at work. Practical implications: Experience of meaning at work constitutes an important organizational resource by contributing to the capacities of employees to deal with work‐related stresses and strains, while maintaining their health and well‐being. Social implications: Experience of meaning at work is positively associated with well‐being and reduces risk for long‐term sickness absence and turnover. Attention towards enhancing employee experiences of meaning at work may contribute towards the ability of western societies to recruit the necessary supply of labour over the coming decades. Originality/value: This is the first study to provide longitudinal, multi‐level evidence on the association between job demands, job resources and experience of meaning at work.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1108/02683941111181761

Reference

Clausen, T., Borg, V. (2011). Job demands, job resources and meaning at work. Journal of Managerial Psych, 26 (8), S. 665–681.

Return to work among employees with long-term sickness absence in eldercare: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes

Clausen, T., Friis Andersen, M., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T.

Abstract

This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8 or more consecutive weeks. Using Cox regression analysis, these 598 employees were followed for a year after onset of sickness absence to investigate associations between baseline questionnaire data on psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states on the one side and 'risk' of RTW on the other. The results showed that none of the psychosocial work characteristics, emotional demands, role conflicts, quality of leadership and influence, were significantly associated with RTW. Of the two work-related psychological states, affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work, the results showed that sickness-absent employees who experienced low meaning at work at baseline had a significantly reduced 'risk' of RTW when compared with employees who experienced high meaning at work. No significant associations were found for affective organizational commitment. The results imply that experience of meaning at work must be considered an important work-life resource, as it enhances the capacity of sickness-absent employees to RTW after extended sickness-absence periods.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1097/MRR.0b013e328348b171

Reference

Clausen, T., Friis Andersen, M., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T. (2011). Return to work among employees with long-term sickness absence in eldercare: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes. International journal of rehabilitation research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue internationale de recherches de readaptation, 34 (3), S. 249–254.

Work ability, psychosocial hazards and work experience in prison environments

Ghaddar, A., Ronda, E., Nolasco, A.

Abstract

Work ability is predicted by age- and work-related psychosocial hazards; however, its association with work experience has not been studied. Work ability has not been studied in prison environments as well. To describe work ability and its associates among prison workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two prisons in Spain, one large and one medium prison, randomly selected from 17 in total. Prison workers were randomly administered a voluntary anonymous questionnaire to measure work ability [Work Ability Index (WAI)], work-related psychosocial hazards (Spanish version of COPSOQ), sociodemographic, lifestyle and work-related variables. Four hundred and forty-one workers (54%) participated. Results confirmed that older and more experienced workers (analysis of variance analysis) and workers in large prisons (t-student) presented significantly lower WAI scores. Quantitative and emotional demands, family work conflict, low work control, low autonomy, low social support from colleagues and stress had negative significant associations with WAI. Age, which highly correlated with work experience (Spearman's r = 0.85), had significant association with WAI (beta = -0.62). In the stepwise linear regression, the association between age and WAI lost statistical significance after controlling for work experience, which maintained significant correlation with WAI (beta = -0.37). The apparent association between age and WAI was confounded by work experience. Interventions to improve work ability among prison workers may benefit from results of this study to focus their efforts on the risk groups in such a psychologically demanding work environment rarely examined in previous research.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

Prison workers

DOI

10.1093/occmed/kqr124

Reference

Ghaddar, A., Ronda, E., Nolasco, A. (2011). Work ability, psychosocial hazards and work experience in prison environments. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 61 (7), S. 503–508.

Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health

Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R.

Abstract

Objective: The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons. Methods: The study included 1944 employees (1413 women and 531 men) from 55 workplaces in Denmark (16 private and 39 public workplaces). During a work day three saliva samples were collected at awakening, +30 min later, and at 20:00 hours, and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Mental health was assessed using items on somatic, cognitive, stress, and depressive mood. Results: Of the 1944 employees, 1.1% was frequently bullied and 7.2% occasionally bullied. Frequently bullied persons reported poorer mental health and had a 24.8% lower salivary cortisol concentration compared with the nonbullied reference group. Occasionally bullied persons had a poorer self-reported mental health, but their cortisol concentrations did not deviate from the group of nonbullied persons. The associations remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, exact time of sampling, mental health, and duration of bullying. Bullying occurred at 78% of the workplaces (43 workplaces); frequent bullying occurred at 21% of the workplaces (40%). Conclusion: Frequent bullying was associated with lower salivary cortisol concentrations. No such association was observed for occasional bullying. Whether the generally lower secretion of cortisol among the frequently bullied persons indicate an altered physiological status remains to be evaluated in future studies. Yet, the physiological response seems to underscore the possibility that bullying indeed may have measurable physiological consequences. Hence, the physiological response supports the mental symptoms found among the frequently bullied.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.05.010

Reference

Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R. (2011). Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health. Journal of psychosomatic research, 70 (1), S. 19–27.

EVALUATION OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK Environment in Romanian Companies using the Adjusted COPSOQ Questionnaire

Haratau, M., Stoia, M., Bardac, D.

Abstract

Along with reducing the physical effort, industrial development brings an increase in the neuro-psychological demands at work, which predicts an increase in stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders in the coming years (anxiety and depression). Aggressive and violent behavior has grown worldwide. This study aims at assessing the psychological working environment of 229 employees from two business units in the county of Sibiu, Romania, by using the adapted version of the COPSOQ questionnaire. By applying the questionnaire, there have been identified certain characteristics of the psychological working environment, namely: increased requirements for group II, low control for group I, lack of professional satisfaction or lack of social support (for both groups). These results require certain corrective interventions.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Romania

Occupations

General

Reference

Haratau, M., Stoia, M., Bardac, D. (2011). EVALUATION OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK Environment in Romanian Companies using the Adjusted COPSOQ Questionnaire. ACTA MEDICA TRANSILVANICA, 2 (1), S. 153–155.

Effects on carers caring for residents who are limited in their everyday capabilities. A comparison of several measuring points in a pilot study

Kwiatkowski, B.

Abstract

According to the § 87b SGB XI (German Social Security Statutes) care worker guidelines, care institutions can employ additional carers for residents who are permanently limited in their everyday capabilities. Studies on the stress experience while caring for the elderly who relate specifically to the additional care givers have, until now, not been available. Previous studies relate to trained nurses. It can be assumed that, if trained nurses already show typical stress reactions, the care givers could be all the more overburdened.For surveying the effects on care givers caring for residents who are limited in their everyday capabilities, an empirical data investigation using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was carried out on 30 care givers qualified according to the above mentioned guidelines in nine nursing homes administrated by Curanum AG. Additionally, the study took place in two residential homes of other administrators. As a comparison, 30 nurses were investigated.In the time span from the start of professional conduct until the end of the survey after six months, significant differences in the examined nurses were found only for the item Job Security (p ≤ 0,05). In the group of §-87b-carers it was possible to show significant changes in the following items: possibilities for development(p ≤ 0,05), influence (p ≤ 0,05), social support (p ≤ 0,05), feedback (p ≤ 0,05) and social- relationship p ≤ 0,05). In summary, the psycho-social stress experiences of the §-87b-carers were determined to be considerably worse than those of the professionally qualified nurses, which could be due to the fact that §-87b-carers are less well trained than the professionally qualified nurses after their three years of training. The §-87b-carers continuously look after residents, who are considerably limited in their everyday capabilities, whereas the professionally qualified nurses look after a mixed group of residents. The study thus provides an indication that the use of §-87b-carers – at least from the viewpoint of the people concerned – leads to a tendency of overburdening and therefore, with the current training and accompaniment provided during employment, does not represent a reasonable and sustainable enhancement to everyday life in the nursing residents.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Care workers

Reference

Kwiatkowski, B. (2011). Effects on carers caring for residents who are limited in their everyday capabilities. A comparison of several measuring points in a pilot study. Pflege Zeitschrift, 64 (5), S. 286–290.

The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence: results from the prospective DREAM study

Labriola, M., Holte, K. A., Christensen, K. B., Feveile, H., Alexanderson, K., Lund, T.

Abstract

Objectives: To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods: A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4years; 50.9% men, mean age 40.2years) was interviewed in 2000 regarding gender, age, family status, socio-economic position and psychosocial and physical work environment factors. The participants were followed for 18months in order to assess their incidence of long-term sickness absence exceeding 8 consecutive weeks. Results: 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences in psychosocial work environment exposures explained 32% of the differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between men and women, causing the effect of gender to become statistically insignificant. The combined effect of physical and psychosocial factors was similar, explaining 30% of the gender difference. Conclusion: Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part of the gender difference in long-term sickness absence from work unexplained.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/oem.2010.060632

Reference

Labriola, M., Holte, K. A., Christensen, K. B., Feveile, H., Alexanderson, K., Lund, T. (2011). The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence: results from the prospective DREAM study. Occupational and environmental medicine, 68 (9), S. 703–705.

Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

Madsen, I. E. H., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Pejtersen, J. H., Borritz, M., Bjorner, J. B., Rugulies, R.

Abstract

Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996–2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender, age, cohabitation, education, income, social support from colleagues, social support from supervisor, and influence and quantitative demands at work. Work-related violence was associated with purchasing antidepressants alone (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.75) or in combination with anxiolytics (hazard ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 2.70) but not with purchasing anxiolytics or hypnotics only. The frequency of violent episodes and risk of caseness were unrelated. Work-related violence is associated with increased risk of clinically pertinent mental health problems. Reducing levels of work-related violence may help to prevent mental disorders in the working population.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/aje/kwr259

Reference

Madsen, I. E. H., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Pejtersen, J. H., Borritz, M., Bjorner, J. B., Rugulies, R. (2011). Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics. American journal of epidemiology, 174 (12), S. 1354–1362.

CC.OO. (“Comisiones Obreras”) – ISTAS (Union Institute of Work, Environment and Health) participatory action plan for a healthier work organization. A case study

Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Rodrigo, F., Landsbergis, P.

Abstract

Spanish workers have been among the most exposed to psychosocial risks across the European Union. CC.OO. and ISTAS decided to establish an action plan to empower workers' health and safety representatives to have an influence on the psychosocial risk assessment processes leading to negotiations with employers over a more democratic, fair and healthier work organization. Most important outcomes included 3600 companies which have followed a participatory process culminating with the implementation of agreed upon at source preventive measures in 40% of cases. There exists some evidence that preventive actions have increased in Spain since CC.OO.'s workers' health and safety representatives started systematically pushing for improvements in the psychosocial work environment, however the quality of such actions is less clear. Future priorities include: first, to overcome barriers related to the interaction with external agents, especially with professional and administrative bodies. Second, to increase collaboration with scientific institutions to ensure and improve quality of both risk assessment tools and preventive actions. Third, to evaluate at the source interventions at company level with special interest in looking at the involvement of worker representatives, managers and OH professionals and the impact of their involvement on the undertaking of effective preventive actions. Fourth, increasing interaction between ISTAS and CC.OO. in order to place demands for the improvement of psychosocial working conditions more centrally in collective bargaining. Fifth, trying to increase unity of action of all Spanish workers' unions on the subject.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.ssci.2010.03.014

Reference

Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Rodrigo, F., Landsbergis, P. (2011). CC.OO. (“Comisiones Obreras”) – ISTAS (Union Institute of Work, Environment and Health) participatory action plan for a healthier work organization. A case study. Safety Science, 49 (4), S. 591–598.

Do positive psychosocial work factors protect against 2-year incidence of long-term sickness absence among employees with and those without depressive symptoms? A prospective study

Munir, F., Burr, H., Hansen, J. V., Rugulies, R., Nielsen, K.

Abstract

Objective: This study sought to examine the influence of protective work factors on long-term sickness absence among employees reporting different levels of depressive symptoms in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected from a random sample of members of the Danish workforce aged between 18 and 64 years using information from two surveys with baselines in 2000 and 2005. From the year 2000 baseline, questionnaires from 5510 employees (2790 males and 2720 females) were included; from the 2005 baseline, questionnaires from 8393 employees (3931 males and 4462 females) were included. Baseline data were collected on depressive symptoms, leadership, colleague support, and decision latitude. Information on 2-year incidence of sickness absence was derived from an official register. Results: Stratified analyses on depressive symptom scores (none, moderate, and severe) indicate that quality of leadership was associated with reduced sickness absence to a somewhat stronger degree for those with moderate depressive symptoms (adjusted hazard ratio=0.88, 95% confidence interval=0.78-0.98) than for those without depressive symptoms and that high decision latitude was associated with reduced sickness absence to a somewhat larger degree for those without depressive symptoms (adjusted hazard ratio=0.91, 95% CI=0.85-0.97) than for those with depressive symptoms. However, quality of leadership and decision latitude did not interact significantly with depressive symptom status. Conclusions: Quality of leadership may protect against long-term sick leave to a certain degree in those with moderate depressive symptoms. Possible interactions between psychosocial working conditions and depression status should be investigated in larger populations.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.09.014

Reference

Munir, F., Burr, H., Hansen, J. V., Rugulies, R., Nielsen, K. (2011). Do positive psychosocial work factors protect against 2-year incidence of long-term sickness absence among employees with and those without depressive symptoms? A prospective study. Journal of psychosomatic research, 70 (1), S. 3–9.

The moderating effect of work-time influence on the effect of shift work: a prospective cohort study

Nabe-Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Albertsen, K., Diderichsen, F.

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep. Methods: We used questionnaire data from 2,148 health care workers who finished their education in 2004 and were followed during their first 2 years of employment in the eldercare and health care sectors. We analyzed the effect of shift work, work-time influence, and the combination of these two variables adjusted for differences in baseline psychological well-being, background factors, and psychosocial work environment. Results: Surprisingly, in this cohort, shift workers had higher vitality and better mental health than day workers. The combination of shift work and moderate or low work-time influence was associated with lower vitality, worse mental health, and more somatic stress symptoms than would have been expected when adding the separate effects of working hours and work-time influence. Work-time influence did not have any effect among day workers. Conclusion: Shift workers appear to be especially vulnerable to the negative effect of moderate or low work-time influence.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-010-0592-5

Reference

Nabe-Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Albertsen, K., Diderichsen, F. (2011). The moderating effect of work-time influence on the effect of shift work: a prospective cohort study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 84 (5), S. 551–559.

The effect of work-time influence on health and well-being: a quasi-experimental intervention study among eldercare workers

Nabe-Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Diderichsen, F.

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of work-time influence on stress and energy, work-family conflicts, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: The study was a quasi-experimental intervention study with a one-year follow-up among eldercare workers (baseline: n = 309; follow-up: n = 297). The nine work units in the intervention group designed their own intervention. We categorized these work units into three subgroups according to the interventions that they initiated: (A) self-scheduling via a computer program (n = 35), (B) setting up a task group that developed a questionnaire on work-time preference and participated in a one-day course on flexible working hours with the intention to increase employee influence on the fixed rota (n = 62), and (C) discussions of how employee work-time influence could be increased (n = 25). These subgroups were compared with a reference group consisting of ten work units (n = 187). Data consisted of questionnaires, blood samples, and measurements of waist and hip circumference. Results: The employees in subgroup A became increasingly involved in the planning of their own work schedule. Nevertheless, we found no effect on health and well-being attributable to the intervention. Conclusion: The introduction of self-scheduling can successfully increase employee work-time influence. Yet, this study does not support the theory that increased work-time influence leads to better health and well-being.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0625-8

Reference

Nabe-Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Diderichsen, F. (2011). The effect of work-time influence on health and well-being: a quasi-experimental intervention study among eldercare workers. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 84 (6), S. 683–695.

Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviors? — An experience sampling method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviors

Nielsen, K., Cleal, B.

Abstract

Transformational leadership has been widely researched and associated with followers' performance, attitudes, health and well-being. However, less research has focused on the antecedents of transformational leadership behaviors. A few studies have examined the characteristics of followers and the attitudes of transformational leaders themselves. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on how the context may encourage transformational leadership behaviors. A study of 58 middle managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elderly care explored this. Using the Experience Sampling Method and questionnaires it was found that both situational factors and working conditions were associated with transformational leadership behaviors at work. The results suggest that research strategies using multiple levels and methods can provide additional information on the antecedents of transformational leadership behaviors in middle managers.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Managers

DOI

10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.02.009

Reference

Nielsen, K., Cleal, B. (2011). Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviors? — An experience sampling method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 22 (2), S. 344–352.

Destructive managerial leadership and psychological well-being among employees in Swedish, Polish, and Italian hotels

Nyberg, A., Holmberg, I., Bernin, P., Alderling, M., Akerblom, S., Widerszal-Bazyl, M. et al.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to investigate destructive managerial leadership in the hotel industry in Sweden, Poland, and Italy in relation to psychological well-being among employees. Methods and participants: 554 questionnaires were collected from employees in all occupational groups within hotels. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) measured working conditions, particularly iso-strain or high work demands combined with low control and poor social support, and psychological well-being, defined in terms of mental health, vitality, and behavioural stress. Items adapted from the Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program questionnaire measured autocratic, malevolent, and self-centred leadership styles. Differences in ratings between countries were estimated, as well as the relationship between destructive managerial leadership on an organisation level and employee psychological well-being on an individual level. The relationship between destructive leadership and psychological well-being among employees was adjusted for employees' reported iso-strain. Results: Autocratic and malevolent leadership were at the organisation level related to low vitality among employees and self-centred leadership was significantly associated with poormental health, low vitality, and high behavioural stress. Autocratic and malevolent leadership were more strongly related to iso-strain than was self-centred leadership. Variations in leadership practice between countries were seen in autocratic and malevolent leadership. Conclusion: This exploratory study suggests a significant association between destructive managerial leadership on the organisation level and poor psychological well-being among employees on an individual level. Interventions to decrease iso-strain and enhance psychological well-being among employees could be directed at an organisation level.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden, Poland, Italy

Occupations

Hotel staff

DOI

10.3233/WOR-2011-1175

Reference

Nyberg, A., Holmberg, I., Bernin, P., Alderling, M., Akerblom, S., Widerszal-Bazyl, M. et al. (2011). Destructive managerial leadership and psychological well-being among employees in Swedish, Polish, and Italian hotels. Work (Reading, Mass.), 39 (3), S. 267–281.

Do managers experience more stress than employees? Results from the Intervention Project on Absence and Well-being (IPAW) study among Danish managers and their employees

Skakon, J., Kristensen, T. S., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T., Labriola, M.

Abstract

Objective: To examine whether managers' perceived stress and work strain is higher than perceived stress and work strain among employees. Methods and participants: The study is based on questionnaire responses from 2052 respondents (128 managers and 1924 employees) at 48 worksites. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses were used to explain possible differences in stress levels and related mediators. Results: Managers experienced higher demands, higher level of conflicts, and lower degree of social support from peers. They tended to experience significantly lower emotional stress, whereas this trend was insignificant with regards to behavioural, somatic and cognitive stress. The difference was partly explained by higher scores in the psychosocial work environment factors; job satisfaction, perceived management quality from their managers, influence, degrees of freedom at work, possibilities for development and meaning of work. For behavioural stress, 41% of the difference was explained by the preventive factors, 20% for somatic stress, 39% for emotional stress and 56% for cognitive stress. Conclusions: This study indicates that the preventive psychosocial factors explain parts of the managers' lower stress level. These results contradict the lay perception of managers being under higher pressure and experiencing more stress than employees. Interventions aiming at reducing employee stress levels, especially regarding behavioural and cognitive stress, could benefit from focussing on psychosocial work environment exposures such as skill discretion, meaning of work, psychological demands, information flow and management quality.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Managers

DOI

10.3233/WOR-2011-1112

Reference

Skakon, J., Kristensen, T. S., Christensen, K. B., Lund, T., Labriola, M. (2011). Do managers experience more stress than employees? Results from the Intervention Project on Absence and Well-being (IPAW) study among Danish managers and their employees. Work (Reading, Mass.), 38 (2), S. 103–109.

Employment Precariousness in Spain. Prevalence, Social Distribution, and Population-Attributable Risk Percent of Poor Mental Health

Vives, A., Vanroelen, C., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C. et al.

Abstract

As a consequence of labor market flexibilization, nonstandard employment has expanded and standard employment has declined. In many cases, these transformations are best described as an evolution toward precarious employment, which is considered a major determinant of health and health inequalities. Using the Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES), this study aims to determine the prevalence of precarious employment in the waged and salaried workforce in Spain, to describe its distribution across social groups defined by occupational class, gender, age, and immigrant status, and to estimate the proportion of cases of poor mental health potentially attributable to employment precariousness. Data are from the Psychosocial Work Environment Survey conducted in 2004–5 on a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. Findings indicate a high prevalence of employment precariousness, affecting nearly 6.5 million workers, with almost 900,000 of them exposed to high precariousness. These estimates are higher than the proportion of fixed-term employment reported in regular statistical sources but may today be an underestimation, given the current economic crisis. Additionally, a significant proportion of cases of poor mental health are potentially attributable to employment precariousness. Both the proportion of cases of poor mental health attributable to and the prevalence of employment precariousness were highly unequally distributed across the study sample, indicating that this may be a significant contributor to social inequalities in mental health.

Year

2011

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.2190/HS.41.4.b

Reference

Vives, A., Vanroelen, C., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C. et al. (2011). Employment Precariousness in Spain. Prevalence, Social Distribution, and Population-Attributable Risk Percent of Poor Mental Health. International Journal of Health Services, 41 (4), S. 625–646.

Validation of a questionnaire for psychosocial risk assessment in the workplace in Chile

Alvarado, R., Perez-Franco, J., Saavedra, N., Fuentealba, C., Alarcon, A., Marchetti, N., Aranda, W.

Abstract

Background: The measurement of psychosocial risk among workers is becoming increasingly important. Aim: To adapt, validate and standardize a questionnaire to measure psychosocial risks in the workplace. Material and Methods: The Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was adapted and evaluated. Its contents were first validated with a panel of experts. Afterwards a semantic adaptation of the questionnaires was carried out applying it to a pilot sample. Finally, it was applied to 1,557workers (65% men). Results: A preliminary questionnaire containing 97 questions was constructed. A good item-test correlation was found, the factorial structure was similar to the original questionnaire and it had a good internal consistency, convergent validity with the Goldberg Health Questionnaire and test-retest correlation. Ranges for the different dimensions and sub-dimensions of psychosocial risk were calculated by tertiles. Conclusions: The resulting questionnaire is useful for measuring psychosocial risk factors at work, with good psychometric properties.

Year

2012

Study type

Validation

Country

Chile

Occupations

General

DOI

10.4067/S0034-98872012000900008

Reference

Alvarado, R., Perez-Franco, J., Saavedra, N., Fuentealba, C., Alarcon, A., Marchetti, N., Aranda, W. (2012). Validation of a questionnaire for psychosocial risk assessment in the workplace in Chile. Revista medica de Chile, 140 (9), S. 1154–1163.

Spreading of chronic pain between body regions: prospective cohort study among health care workers

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Carneiro, I. G., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Objective: To estimate the prognostic value of pain in one body region on the risk for developing chronic pain in other body regions. Methods: Prospective cohort study among 5052 Danish female health care workers responding to a baseline and follow-up questionnaire in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Using adjusted logistic regression analysis, the risk for developing chronic pain (>30 days last year) at follow-up in the low back (among those without low back pain during the last year at baseline) when experiencing sub-chronic (1–30 days last year) or chronic pain in other body regions (i.e., the neck/shoulders and/or the knees at baseline) was modelled. Similar risks were modelled for developing chronic pain in the neck/shoulders and knees. Results: Chronic pain in the neck/shoulders (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.74–5.70) or knees (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.28–5.16) at baseline increased the risk for developing chronic pain in the low back at follow-up. Likewise, chronic pain in the neck/shoulders (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.36–4.17) or low back (OR 1.82 95%; CI 1.07–3.09) at baseline increased the risk for developing chronic pain in the knees at follow-up. The risk for developing chronic neck/shoulder pain was not significantly increased when having pain in the low back or knees at baseline. Conclusion: Among health care workers, chronic musculoskeletal pain in one body region increases the risk for developing chronic pain in other pain-free body regions. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders among health care workers should focus holistically on the musculoskeletal system.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1002/j.1532-2149.2012.00143.x

Reference

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Carneiro, I. G., Holtermann, A. (2012). Spreading of chronic pain between body regions: prospective cohort study among health care workers. European journal of pain (London, England), 16 (10), S. 1437–1443.

A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Mortensen, O. S., Burr, H., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Purpose: The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates the risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) from pain in different body regions among healthcare workers. Methods: Prospective cohort study among 8,952 Danish healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005 and followed for 1 year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM). Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) analysis controlled for age, gender, BMI, smoking, seniority, leisure physical activity and psychosocial working conditions, we modeled risk estimates of sub-chronic (1-30 days last year) and chronic pain (>30 days last year) in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks) during one-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, the prevalence of chronic pain was 23% (low back), 28% (neck/shoulder) and 12% (knees). During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. Chronic pains in the low back (HR 1.47 [95% CI 1.17-1.85]), neck/shoulder (HR 1.60 [95% CI 1.27-2.02]) and knees (HR 1.92 [95% CI 1.52-2.42]) were significant risk factors for LTSA. However, only chronic neck/shoulder (HR 1.41 [95% CI 1.09-1.82]) and knee pain (HR 1.69 [95% CI 1.32-2.16]) remained significant with mutual adjustment for all three musculoskeletal pain regions. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is a risk factor for LTSA among healthcare workers. Future research among healthcare workers in eldercare should include the management of neck/shoulder and knee pain in addition to the management of back pain.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0709-5

Reference

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Mortensen, O. S., Burr, H., Holtermann, A. (2012). A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (6), S. 615–622.

Dose-response relation between perceived physical exertion during healthcare work and risk of long-term sickness absence

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Persson, R., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Objective: An imbalance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the worker may be a risk factor for poor health. Perceived physical exertion provides information about the individual perception of the work demands relative to the capacity to perform the work. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA) from perceived physical exertion among healthcare workers. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprises 8592 Danish healthcare workers who responded to a baseline questionnaire in 2004–2005 and subsequently were followed for one year in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization (DREAM), a national register of social transfer payments. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) analysis, controlled for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, tenure, leisure-time physical activity, psychosocial working conditions, and LTSA during one year prior to baseline, we modeled risk estimates of moderate and strenuous (reference: light) perceived physical exertion during healthcare work for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for ≥8 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, 35.1%, 39.4%, and 25.5% of the healthcare workers experienced, respectively, light, moderate, and strenuous physical exertion during healthcare work. During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 4.6%, 6.4%, and 8.9%, respectively, in these three exertion groups. A dose–response pattern between physical exertion and the risk for LTSA was found (trend test P<0.0001). In the multi-adjusted model, the risk for LTSA was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04–1.64] for healthcare workers reporting moderate physical exertion and 1.57 (95% CI 1.23–2.01) for those reporting strenuous physical exertion, referencing those reporting light physical exertion during healthcare work. Conclusion: Moderate and strenuous perceived physical exertion during healthcare work increases – in a dose–response manner – the risk for LTSA. The possible preventive effect of balancing work demands with the capacity of the worker, to thereby avoid excessive physical exertion, should be tested in randomized controlled trials.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.3310

Reference

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Persson, R., Holtermann, A. (2012). Dose-response relation between perceived physical exertion during healthcare work and risk of long-term sickness absence. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 38 (6), S. 582–589.

Iranian nursing staff's self-reported general and mental health related to working conditions and family situation

Arsalani, N., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Josephson, M., Lagerstrom, M.

Abstract

Background: There is increasing global evidence that today's work environment results in higher risk of adverse health among nursing staff than among other professions. Aim: To investigate self-reported general and mental health among Iranian nursing staff, and associations with organizational, physical and psychosocial working conditions and family situation. Methods: 520 nursing personnel from 10 university hospitals in Tehran participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire in the Persian language, containing the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, physical items from the Nurse Early eXit Study and two scales relating to general health and mental health from the Short Form-36. The Chi-square test with P < 0.05 and logistic regression were used to analyse data. Results: Three out of four nursing staff reported overtime work. The self-reported general and mental health rates of participants were poor/fair (38%, 41%), good (44%, 39%) and very good/excellent (18%, 20%), respectively. Family demands were associated with general health but were not associated with mental health. Adverse physical and psychosocial work conditions gave an elevated odds ratio for poor health. Conclusion: Poor general and mental health was associated with adverse working conditions and family demands. Physical and psychosocial working conditions of nursing personnel should be improved. Social facilities such as daycare for children and care for the elderly should be available during work shifts to help Iranian nurses play their family roles.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Iran

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1111/j.1466-7657.2012.00987.x

Reference

Arsalani, N., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Josephson, M., Lagerstrom, M. (2012). Iranian nursing staff's self-reported general and mental health related to working conditions and family situation. International nursing review, 59 (3), S. 416–423.

Sometimes, often, and always: exploring the vague meanings of frequency expressions

Bocklisch, F., Bocklisch, S.F., Krems, J.F.

Abstract

The article describes a general two-step procedure for the numerical translation of vague linguistic terms (LTs). The suggested procedure consists of empirical and model components, including (1) participants' estimates of numerical values corresponding to verbal terms and (2) modeling of the empirical data using fuzzy membership functions (MFs), respectively. The procedure is outlined in two studies for data from N = 89 and N = 109 participants, who were asked to estimate numbers corresponding to 11 verbal frequency expressions (e.g., sometimes). Positions and shapes of the resulting MFs varied considerably in symmetry, vagueness, and overlap and are indicative of the different meanings of the vague frequency expressions. Words were not distributed equidistantly across the numerical scale. This has important implications for the many questionnaires that use verbal rating scales, which consist of frequency expressions and operate on the premise of equidistance. These results are discussed for an exemplar questionnaire (COPSOQ). Furthermore, the variation of the number of prompted LTs (5 vs. 11) showed no influence on the words' interpretations.

Year

2012

Study type

Other

Country

Germany

Occupations

Undergraduate students

DOI

10.3758/s13428-011-0130-8

Reference

Bocklisch, F., Bocklisch, S.F., Krems, J.F. (2012). Sometimes, often, and always: exploring the vague meanings of frequency expressions. Behavior research methods, 44 (1), S. 144–157.

Job demands, job resources and long-term sickness absence in the Danish eldercare services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes

Clausen, T., Nielsen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aim: To investigate associations between psychosocial job demands, job resources and cases of registered long-term sickness absence among nursing staff in the eldercare services. Background: Research has shown that psychosocial work environment exposures predict sickness absence in healthcare settings. However, only few studies have longitudinally investigated associations between specific job demands and job resources and risk of long-term sickness absence. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected in 2004 and 2005 among all employees in the eldercare services in 35 Danish municipalities and were followed in a National register on payment of sickness absence compensation for a 1-year follow-up period (N = 7921). Three psychosocial job demands - emotional demands, quantitative demands and role conflicts - and three job resources - influence, quality of leadership and team climate - were investigated to predict risk of sickness absence for eight or more consecutive weeks in the follow-up period. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: A percentage of 6·5 of the respondents were absent for eight or more consecutive weeks during follow-up. The analyses showed that emotional demands, role conflicts, influence, quality of leadership and team climate were significantly associated with risk of long-term sickness absence. In an analysis with mutual adjustment for all job demands and job resources, influence constituted the strongest predictor of long-term sickness absence (negative association). Conclusions: Job demands and job resources are significantly associated with risk of long-term sickness absence. Interventions aimed at improving the psychosocial work environment may, therefore, contribute towards preventing long-term sickness absence in the eldercare services.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05724.x

Reference

Clausen, T., Nielsen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Borg, V. (2012). Job demands, job resources and long-term sickness absence in the Danish eldercare services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes. Journal of advanced nursing, 68 (1), S. 127–136.

Acts of offensive behaviour and risk of long-term sickness absence in the Danish elder-care services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes

Clausen, T., Hogh, A., Borg, V.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate associations between acts of offensive behaviour (threats, violence, bullying, and unwanted sexual attention) and risk of long-term sickness absence for eight or more consecutive weeks among female staff in the Danish elder-care services. Methods: These associations were investigated using Cox regression analysis. Data consisted of a merger between Danish survey data collected among 9,520 female employees in the Danish elder-care services and register data on sickness absence compensation. Results: Compared to unexposed employees, employees frequently exposed to threats (HR = 1.52, 95% CI:1.11-2.07), violence (HR = 1.54, 95% CI:1.06-2.25), and bullying (HR = 2.33, 95% CI:1.55-3.51) had significantly increased risk of long-term sickness absence when adjusting for age, job function, tenure, BMI, smoking status, and psychosocial work conditions. When mutually adjusting for the four types of offensive behaviours, only bullying remained significantly associated with risk of long-term sickness absence (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.50-3.42). No significant associations were found between unwanted sexual attention and risk for long-term sickness absence. Conclusions: Results indicate that prevention of threats, violence, and bullying may contribute to reduced sickness absence among elder-care staff. The results furthermore suggest that work organizations must be attentive on how to handle and prevent acts of offensive behaviour and support targets of offensive behaviours.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0680-1

Reference

Clausen, T., Hogh, A., Borg, V. (2012). Acts of offensive behaviour and risk of long-term sickness absence in the Danish elder-care services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (4), S. 381–387.

Partner relationships and long-term sick leave among female workers: consequences and impact on dimensions of health and return to work

Dellve, L., Ahlborg, T.

Abstract

Few efforts have been made to prospectively identify resources and obstacles outside work that may predict regained work ability and return to work when workers are on sick leave. This study investigates the association between partner relationships and sick leave. Our research questions were as follows: (i) What is the influence of sick leave, pain, stress and domestic strain on the quality of the dyadic partner relationship?, and (ii) What is the influence of the partner and social relationship on pain, stress, work ability, self-rated health and return to work? A cohort of female workers (n = 225) on long-term sick leave (>60 days), all in a partner relationship, at 6-month intervals completed a questionnaire based on the Quality of Dyadic Relationship (QDR) instrument, the Interview Schedule of Social Interaction (ISSI), the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Univariate and multivariate analyses of baseline and prospective data were performed. The results showed that decreased partner relationship quality was related to having major responsibility for household work despite being on sick leave, having pain and having decreased social integration. Among younger individuals on sick leave, a reduction in the quality of the partner relationship was shown already at the first (6-month) follow-up, while among middle-aged women, such a reduction was seen only at the 12-month follow-up. No dimensions of partner relationship quality at baseline were related to dimensions of return to work, either as a resource or as an obstacle. Consequently, our results show that a good relationship does not keep the woman from returning to work. Having main responsibility for household work, which implies domestic strain while on sick leave, predicts lower partner relationship quality. The practical implications are that healthcare professionals treating women on sick leave should emphasize the importance of keeping a social network as well as making sufficient adjustments at home for the relationship quality to be safeguarded. Special attention should be given to the young woman on sick leave as being on sick leave seems to influence her partner relationship considerably.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.00985.x

Reference

Dellve, L., Ahlborg, T. (2012). Partner relationships and long-term sick leave among female workers: consequences and impact on dimensions of health and return to work. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 26 (4), S. 720–729.

Psychosocial risk assessment: French validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)

Dupret, E., Bocerean, C., Teherani, M., Feltrin, M., Pejtersen, J. H.

Abstract

Aims: This study presents a French version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and analyses its psychometric properties for the purpose of validation. The questionnaire assesses psychosocial risk factors at work. The French questionnaire (derived from the Danish short version) is composed of 32 items grouped into 17 scales measuring five domains and eight additional questions assessing aggressive behaviour at work. Method: The questionnaire was administered to 935 employees of a large firm in the Parisian area. Results: All psychometric analyses performed (internal consistency of the scales, exploratory factor analysis, concurrent validity analysis) gave satisfactory results and demonstrated the validity of the French COPSOQ. Conclusions: A new questionnaire is now available in French. A large body of data is currently being gathered in view of comparing occupations and types of firms using this new instrument.

Year

2012

Study type

Validation

Country

France

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494812453888

Reference

Dupret, E., Bocerean, C., Teherani, M., Feltrin, M., Pejtersen, J. H. (2012). Psychosocial risk assessment: French validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Scandinavian journal of public health, 40 (5), S. 482–490.

The relationship between immigration and mental health: what is the role of workplace psychosocial factors

Font, A., Moncada, S., Benavides, F. G.

Abstract

This article draws on an exploratory study of the experiences of precarious status migrants in their attempts to access healthcare. We surveyed 211 men and women migrants and did 31 semi-structured follow-up interviews. For the purposes of this article, we report on the 78 respondents who were either recruited to Canada specifically as workers (temporary foreign workers) or who had no access to income support and were therefore likely to be working (undocumented workers). We begin the article with an overview of the literature linking migration status to difficult healthcare access and higher risk of OHS problems. After presenting our methods, we turn to the results, outlining how migrant workers are using a combination of social networks, Quebec professionals and transnational healthcare connections to address their health concerns. Our findings offer insight to OHS professionals seeking to understand the differential outcomes for immigrants faced with workplace accidents or illnesses. Can difficult access to healthcare become a barrier to full recourse in cases of workplace injury or illness among migrant workers?

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Canada

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0724-6

Reference

Font, A., Moncada, S., Benavides, F. G. (2012). The relationship between immigration and mental health: what is the role of workplace psychosocial factors. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (7), S. 801–806.

Psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace: differences between immigrants and Spaniards

Font, A., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Benavides, F. G.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to analyse psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace for immigrant workers in Spain and identify differences in exposure at work between immigrants and Spaniards. Methods: A multi-stage sample was taken by conglomerates (final sample size: 7555 workers). The information was obtained in 2004 and 2005 using a standardized questionnaire administered by interviewing participants in their homes. The analysis focused on eight psychosocial factors. For quantitative demands and insecurity, the exposure was defined according to the higher third, and for the others, the exposure was defined according to the lower third. The prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval (CI) for unfavourable psychosocial factor, both crude and adjusted, were calculated using log binomial models. Results: Those with highest prevalence of unfavourable psychosocial factor were immigrant manual workers, particularly in low possibilities for development (PR = 2.87; 95% CI 2.44–3.73), and immigrant women, particularly in low control over working times (PR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.55–1.91). Conclusions: Immigrant workers with manual jobs and immigrant women are the groups most exposed to psychosocial factor. In efforts to prevent these exposures, these inequalities should be taken into account.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/eurpub/ckr169

Reference

Font, A., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Benavides, F. G. (2012). Psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace: differences between immigrants and Spaniards. European journal of public health, 22 (5), S. 688–693.

Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women: the IPD-Work Consortium

Fransson, E. I., Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Zins, M., Westerlund, H., Westerholm, P., et al.

Abstract

Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/aje/kws336

Reference

Fransson, E. I., Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Zins, M., Westerlund, H., Westerholm, P., et al. (2012). Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women: the IPD-Work Consortium. American journal of epidemiology, 176 (12), S. 1078–1089.

Psychosocial risk at work, self-perceived stress, and salivary cortisol level in a sample of emergency physicians in Granada

González Cabrera, J., Fernández Prada, M., Molina Ruano, R., Blázquez, A., Guillén Solvas, J., Peinado, J. M.

Abstract

Objectives: 1) To describe psychosocial risks, stable disposition to feel stress, and salivary cortisol levels in a sample of emergency physicians in Granada, Spain; 2) to explore bivariate associations between the aforementioned factors; and 3) to analyze the results by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 32 physicians working at the emergency departments of 2 hospitals in Granada. Occupational psychosocial risk and perceived stress level were assessed with the ISTAS-21 instrument (validated Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait scale; STAI-T). Salivary cortisol (Salivette) was also measured as a biochemical marker of stress at 3 moments during a work shift. Results: The emergency physicians reported psychosocial risk factors, particularly high demand on psychological resources and low job control. The stress levels in the male physicians were significantly higher than in the general population (P<.017). Cortisol levels were within the normal range. On bivariate analysis, no associations were found between ISTAS-21 findings, STAI-T scores, and cortisol levels. Conclusions: Emergency physicians are in a potentially harmful working situation, although we detected no effect on cortisol as a biochemical marker of stress.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Granada

Occupations

Physicians

Reference

González Cabrera, J., Fernández Prada, M., Molina Ruano, R., Blázquez, A., Guillén Solvas, J., Peinado, J. M. (2012). Psychosocial risk at work, self-perceived stress, and salivary cortisol level in a sample of emergency physicians in Granada. Emergencias, 24, S. 101–106.

Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel - a cross-sectional study

Hansen, C. D., Rasmussen, K., Kyed, M., Nielsen, K. J., Andersen, J. H.

Abstract

Background: Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Methods: Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results: Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Conclusions: Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence of positive organizational support mechanisms that can prevent negative effects from the high levels of emotional demands.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Ambulance staff, Fire fighters

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-12-534

Reference

Hansen, C. D., Rasmussen, K., Kyed, M., Nielsen, K. J., Andersen, J. H. (2012). Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel - a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 12, S. 534.

Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140,000 men and women

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Alfredsson, L., Bacquer, D. de, Bjorner, J.B., Bonenfant, S., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Clays, E., Casini, A., Dragano, N., Erbel, R., Geuskens, G.A., Goldberg, M., Hooftman, W.E., Houtman, I.L., Joensuu, M., Jockel, K.-H., Kittel, F., Knutsson, A., Koskenvuo, M., Koskinen, A., Kouvonen, A., Leineweber, C., Lunau, T., Madsen, I.E.H., Magnusson Hanson, L.L., Marmot, M.G., Nielsen, M.L., Nordin, M., Pentti, J., Salo, P., Rugulies, R., Steptoe, A., Siegrist, J., Suominen, S., Vahtera, J., Virtanen, M., Vaananen, A., Westerholm, P., Westerlund, H., Zins, M., Theorell, T., Hamer, M., Ferrie, J.E., Singh-Manoux, A., Batty, G.D., Kivimaki, M.

Abstract

Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1–14, men: 1–21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15–20, men: 22–27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0040101

Reference

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Alfredsson, L., Bacquer, D. de, Bjorner, J.B., Bonenfant, S., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Clays, E., Casini, A., Dragano, N., Erbel, R., Geuskens, G.A., Goldberg, M., Hooftman, W.E., Houtman, I.L., Joensuu, M., Jockel, K.-H., Kittel, F., Knutsson, A., Koskenvuo, M., Koskinen, A., Kouvonen, A., Leineweber, C., Lunau, T., Madsen, I.E.H., Magnusson Hanson, L.L., Marmot, M.G., Nielsen, M.L., Nordin, M., Pentti, J., Salo, P., Rugulies, R., Steptoe, A., Siegrist, J., Suominen, S., Vahtera, J., Virtanen, M., Vaananen, A., Westerholm, P., Westerlund, H., Zins, M., Theorell, T., Hamer, M., Ferrie, J.E., Singh-Manoux, A., Batty, G.D., Kivimaki, M. (2012). Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140,000 men and women. PloS one, 7 (7), e40101.

Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., Bacquer, D. De., Bjorner, J. B., Bonenfant, S. et al.

Abstract

Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology And Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0035463

Reference

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., Bacquer, D. De., Bjorner, J. B., Bonenfant, S. et al. (2012). Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies. PloS one, 7 (7), e35463.

A cross-sectional study of psychosocial work environment and stress in the Danish symphony orchestras

Holst, G. J., Paarup, H. M., Baelum, J.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate psychosocial work environment and stress in Danish symphony orchestra musicians. Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of psychosocial work factors and stress symptoms among 441 musicians in six Danish symphony orchestras. The response rate was 78% (n = 342). The questions were from COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Mean values of 19 COPSOQ-scales were compared by gender and instrument group. The results for the musicians were compared with results for the general Danish work force (COPSOQ database). Results: Female musicians reported higher work demands and higher stress symptoms than their male colleagues. Between instrument groups, 2nd violinists seemed to be of particular risk compared with the other instrumental groups in aspects of work pace, work organization, and content, whereas 1st violinists perceived higher emotional stress compared with 2nd violinists. The musicians' experience of increased work demands as well as deteriorated, work organization and job content, interpersonal relations and leadership, and work-individual interface was significantly associated with increasing stress symptoms. Compared to the general workforce independently of gender, Danish symphony orchestra musicians reported higher emotional demands, lower influence, lower social support, lower sense of community, and lower job satisfaction. However, the musicians reported a higher commitment to the workplace. Conclusions: The findings indicate a more demanding psychosocial work environment exposure among symphony orchestra musicians than among Danish workers in general. Critical results are the relatively high work demands, low influence, and low social support, females being of higher risk than males.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Musicians

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0710-z

Reference

Holst, G. J., Paarup, H. M., Baelum, J. (2012). A cross-sectional study of psychosocial work environment and stress in the Danish symphony orchestras. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (6), S. 639–649.

The greatest risk for low-back pain among newly educated female health care workers; body weight or physical work load?

Jensen, J. N., Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Mortensen, O. S., Carneiro, I. G., Andersen, L. L.

Abstract

Background: Low back pain (LBP) represents a major socioeconomic burden for the Western societies. Both life-style and work-related factors may cause low back pain. Prospective cohort studies assessing risk factors among individuals without prior history of low back pain are lacking. This aim of this study was to determine risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Methods: Prospective cohort study with 2,235 newly educated female health care workers without prior history of LBP. Risk factors and incidence of LBP were assessed at one and two years after graduation. Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and psychosocial factors showed that workers with high physical work load had higher risk for developing LBP than workers with low physical work load (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8). In contrast, workers with high BMI were not at a higher risk for developing LBP than workers with a normal BMI. Conclusion: Preventive initiatives for LBP among health care workers ought to focus on reducing high physical work loads rather than lowering excessive body weight.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1186/1471-2474-13-87

Reference

Jensen, J. N., Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Mortensen, O. S., Carneiro, I. G., Andersen, L. L. (2012). The greatest risk for low-back pain among newly educated female health care workers; body weight or physical work load?. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 13, S. 87.

Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work

Kiss, P., Meester, M. De., Kruse, A., Chavee, B., Braeckman, L.

Abstract

Purpose: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ I) was developed as a tool to assess a broad range of psychosocial work environment factors and was recently revised (COPSOQ II). The research question in this study was: Do COPSOQ II-scales predict a high need for recovery (NFR) after work better than COPSOQ I-scales? Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 990 subjects (84.5% response), employed in the public sector. Psychosocial factors were assessed by COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for the presence of a high NFR, controlled for gender, age, physical workload and other relevant occupational and non-occupational factors. Analyses were performed for COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II separately. Results: In both COPSOQ versions, 'quantitative demands' (p < 0.001) and 'job insecurity' (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with a high NFR. Additionally, in the COPSOQ I model, 'demands for hiding emotions' (p < 0.05) and 'degrees of freedom' (p < 0.05), and in the COPSOQ II model 'emotional demands' (p < 0.05) and 'commitment to the workplace' (p < 0.005) were significant as well. 'Degrees of freedom' was omitted by the developers in the revised COPSOQ II. Reintroducing it into the COPSOQ II model did not alter the existing associations, but pointed out 'degrees of freedom' to be an additional important dimension (p < 0.05). The COPSOQ II model with 'degrees of freedom' included also had the best data fit. Conclusions: The results suggested the COPSOQ II to be better predictive than COPSOQ I for a high NFR, but also indicated that 'degrees of freedom' should be included into the COPSOQ II when studying the NFR as outcome parameter.

Year

2012

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0741-0

Reference

Kiss, P., Meester, M. De., Kruse, A., Chavee, B., Braeckman, L. (2012). Comparison between the first and second versions of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire: psychosocial risk factors for a high need for recovery after work. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86, S. 17.

Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

Kivimäki, M., Nyberg, S. T., Batty, G. D., Fransson, E. I., Heikkilä, K., Alfredsson, L. et al.

Abstract

Background: Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. Methods: We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985–2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Findings: 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1·49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7·5 years [SD 1·7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1·23 (95% CI 1·10–1·37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1·43, 1·15–1·77) than unpublished (1·16, 1·02–1·32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1·31, 1·15–1·48) and 5 years (1·30, 1·13–1·50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3·4%. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller effect than would tackling of standard risk factors, such as smoking.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60994-5

Reference

Kivimäki, M., Nyberg, S. T., Batty, G. D., Fransson, E. I., Heikkilä, K., Alfredsson, L. et al. (2012). Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. The Lancet, 380 (9852), S. 1491–1497.

Improving quality of medical treatment and care: are surgeons' working conditions and job satisfaction associated to patient satisfaction?

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Background: Over the last decades, surgeons, researchers, and health administrators have been working hard to define standards for high-quality treatment and care in Surgery departments. However, it is unclear whether patients’ perceptions of medical treatment and care are related and affected by surgeons’ perceptions of their working conditions and job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ satisfaction in relation to surgeons’ working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 120 patients and 109 surgeons working in Surgery hospital departments was performed. Surgeons completed a survey evaluating their working conditions and job satisfaction. Patients assessed quality of medical care and treatment and their satisfaction with being a patient in this department. Results: Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with performed surgeries and services in their department. Surgeons’ job satisfaction and working conditions rated with moderate scores. Bivariate analyses showed correlations between patients’ satisfaction and surgeons’ job satisfaction and working conditions. Strongest correlations were found between kindness of medical staff, treatment outcome and overall patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This study demonstrates strong associations between surgeons’ working conditions and patient satisfaction. Based on these findings, hospital managements should improve work organization, workload, and job resources to not only improve surgeons’ job satisfaction but also quality of medical treatment and patient satisfaction in Surgery departments.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Surgeons

DOI

10.1007/s00423-012-0963-3

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A. (2012). Improving quality of medical treatment and care: are surgeons' working conditions and job satisfaction associated to patient satisfaction?. Langenbeck's archives of surgery, 397 (6), S. 973–982.

Does shared and differentiated transformational leadership predict followers' working conditions and well-being?

Nielsen, K., Daniels, K.

Abstract

Transformational leadership has been widely researched and is associated with followers' performance, attitudes, and subjective well-being at the individual level. Less research has focused on transformational leadership as a group phenomenon. In a survey study (425 followers and 56 leaders), we examined how group-level and differentiated transformational leadership shape followers' perceptions of their working conditions and individual subjective well-being. There was stronger evidence that differentiated transformational leadership's relationships with indicators of well-being was mediated by perceptions of working conditions, in that 10 out of 20 tests for mediation using differentiated transformational leadership were significant, compared to just three out of 20 for group-level transformational leadership. The results suggest that transformational leadership needs to be studied as a group phenomenon considering how group-level perceptions may impact on followers' well-being and that leaders need to realize that there is an “I” in groups and addition to a “we” in groups.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

United Kingdom

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.001

Reference

Nielsen, K., Daniels, K. (2012). Does shared and differentiated transformational leadership predict followers' working conditions and well-being?. The Leadership Quarterly, 23 (3), S. 383–397.

The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention

Nielsen, K., Randall, R.

Abstract

The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees’ reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes.

Year

2012

Study type

Intervention

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1080/02678373.2012.682721

Reference

Nielsen, K., Randall, R. (2012). The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention. Work and stress, 26 (2), S. 91–111.

Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

Olesen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Jorgensen, M. B., Flyvholm, M.-A., Rugulies, R., Rasmussen, C. D. N. et al.

Abstract

Introduction: Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners (148 Danes and 137 non-Western immigrants) from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners' immigrant status was tested for association with psychosocial work environment scales from the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) using ordinal logistic regression. Results: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace, and perceived physical work exertion showed that non-Western cleaners compared with Danish cleaners reported significantly higher scores with regard to Predictability (OR = 3.97), Recognition (OR = 1.92), Quality of Leadership (OR = 1.81), Trust Regarding Management (OR = 1.72), and Justice (OR = 2.14). Conclusions: This study showed that non-Western immigrant cleaners reported a statistically significantly better psychosocial work environment than Danish cleaners on a number of scales. Therefore, the hypothesis of non-Western immigrants reporting worse psychosocial work environment than their Danish colleagues was not supported.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Cleaners

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0642-7

Reference

Olesen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Jorgensen, M. B., Flyvholm, M.-A., Rugulies, R., Rasmussen, C. D. N. et al. (2012). Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (1), S. 89–95.

Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

Olesen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Jorgensen, M. B., Rugulies, R., Rasmussen, C. D. N., Sogaard, K. et al.

Abstract

Introduction: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish cleaners. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. Results: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed that high Trust regarding management (OR = 0.50) and high Predictability (OR = 0.63) were statistically significantly associated with low prevalence of hypertension in the Danish population. In the immigrant population, no significant associations were found. Analyses on interaction effects showed that associations between Meaning of work and hypertension were significantly different among the two populations (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Psychosocial work factors were associated with hypertension among Danes, but not among non-Western immigrants. This divergent association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension between Danes and non-Western immigrant cleaners may be explained by different perceptions of psychosocial work environment.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Cleaners

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0728-2

Reference

Olesen, K., Carneiro, I. G., Jorgensen, M. B., Rugulies, R., Rasmussen, C. D. N., Sogaard, K. et al. (2012). Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (7), S. 829–835.

Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers' representative

Rabe, M., Giacomuzzi, S., Nubling, M.

Abstract

Background: Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role) and a national reference value. Methods: For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p<0.05 (two-tailed) and a minimum deviation of 5 or more points between groups′ mean values identify the relevant values. Results: All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work), 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties). Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810) and non-leadership roles (N=2970)) and for employees in general (N=35.000) showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative demands and commitment to the workplace. Conclusion: Compared to the reference groups, works council members perceive the psychosocial demands of working life as more exhausting for the majority of aspects. This allows several conclusions. One reason may be the extended tasks employee representatives face, an other may be that the education of most works council members does not seem appropriate to the high demands of their managerial and executive tasks.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Workers' representatives

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-12-909

Reference

Rabe, M., Giacomuzzi, S., Nubling, M. (2012). Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers' representative. BMC public health, 12, S. 909.

Effects of the Resident Assessment Instrument in home care settings: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

Stolle, C., Wolter, A., Roth, G., Rothgang, H.

Abstract

Deficits in quality, a lack of professional process management and, most importantly, neglect of outcome quality are criticized in long-term care. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess whether the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) can help to improve or stabilize functional abilities (ADL, IADL) and cognitive skills (MMST), improve quality of life (EQ-5D), and reduce institutionalization, thereby, increasing outcome quality. A total of 69 home care services throughout Germany were included and randomized. The treatment group (n=36) received training in RAI and was supported by the research team during the study (13 months). Comparison of mean differences between the treatment and control groups (n=33) showed no significant effect. Although the multilevel regression results show that clients in the treatment group fared better in terms of ADLs and IADLs (smaller decline) and were less likely to move to nursing homes and be hospitalized, none of these effects is significant. The lack of significance might result from the small number of clients included in the study. Moreover, RAI was not fully implemented and even partial implementation required more time than expected.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Home care workers

DOI

10.1007/s00391-011-0221-2

Reference

Stolle, C., Wolter, A., Roth, G., Rothgang, H. (2012). Effects of the Resident Assessment Instrument in home care settings: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 45 (4), S. 315–322.

Client-related work tasks and meaning of work: results from a longitudinal study among eldercare workers in Denmark

Tufte, P., Clausen, T., Nabe-Nielsen, K.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the association between the perception of client-related work tasks and the experience of meaning of work among eldercare workers in the Danish eldercare sector. Methods: We used baseline and follow-up questionnaire data from 3,985 female eldercare workers. The eldercare workers' perception of the client-related work tasks was measured by six items. Meaning of work was measured by a three-item scale. General linear modelling was used to investigate the association between the client-related work tasks at baseline and experience of meaning of work at follow-up adjusted for job title, type of workplace, and age. Results: When care workers experience to have time to be flexible in the care provision and to be able to talk and socialize with the elderly, they are significantly more likely to experience meaning of work at follow-up than care workers who occasionally or rarely have this experience. Care workers who frequently experience to have to end a visit prematurely are significantly less likely to experience meaning of work at follow-up than care workers who rarely experience this. Experiences of having time to perform other than pre-planned tasks and to have insufficient time have little impact on experience of meaning of work at follow-up. Conclusion: This study indicates that to enhance the experience of meaning of work among eldercare workers, improvements of the relational aspects of care work, i.e. the possibilities to talk, socialize, and involve the elderly in the care provision, should be considered.

Year

2012

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1007/s00420-011-0692-x

Reference

Tufte, P., Clausen, T., Nabe-Nielsen, K. (2012). Client-related work tasks and meaning of work: results from a longitudinal study among eldercare workers in Denmark. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 85 (5), S. 467–472.

Perceived physical exertion during healthcare work and risk of chronic pain in different body regions: prospective cohort study

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Persson, R., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Purpose: To estimate the risk of developing chronic musculoskeletal pain in different body regions from varying degrees of perceived physical exertion during healthcare work. Methods: Prospective cohort study among 4,977 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a baseline and follow-up questionnaire in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Using multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the risk of developing chronic pain (>30 days last year) at follow-up in the low back, neck/shoulder, and knees-among those without pain (0 days last year) in these respective body regions at baseline-from moderate and strenuous (reference: light) perceived physical exertion during healthcare work was modeled. Results: Adjusted for age, BMI, tenure, smoking status, and leisure physical activity, strenuous perceived physical exertion during healthcare work increased the risk of chronic low back pain (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.79-5.57) and chronic knee pain (OR 1.87, 95 % CI 1.19-2.94) at follow-up among those without pain in these respective body regions at baseline. With additional adjustment for psychosocial work conditions, only the risk of developing chronic low back pain from strenuous physical exertion remained significant (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.02-3.88). Strenuous physical exertion was not a risk factor for chronic neck pain, and moderate physical exertion was not a risk factor for chronic pain in any of the body regions. Conclusion: Strenuous perceived physical exertion during healthcare work is a risk factor especially for developing chronic pain in the low back. The possible preventive effect of reducing strenuous physical exertion should be tested in randomized controlled trials.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0808-y

Reference

Andersen, L. L., Clausen, T., Persson, R., Holtermann, A. (2013). Perceived physical exertion during healthcare work and risk of chronic pain in different body regions: prospective cohort study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86 (6), S. 681–687.

The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

Andreassen, C. N., Eriksen, J. G.

Abstract

Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time. Material and methods. From May to September 2009, 330 physicians employed at six oncology centres and seven community based oncology departments were invited to participate in a survey based on the short version of the COPSOQ II questionnaire. The results were compared with data from a representative section of Danish employees and with data from the 2006 survey. Results. Two hundred and twenty of the 330 invited physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 67%). Concerning the aspects quantitative demands, work pace, emotional demands, influence, burnout and stress, the oncologists reported worse work conditions than the average Danish employee. However, with regard to possibilities for development, meaning of work and commitment to workplace, the oncologists reported better work conditions. Between 2006 and 2009, substantial improvement was seen concerning several of the assessed work environment aspects within the group of young physicians at the oncology centres. Conclusion. Though substantial improvement of the work conditions has been achieved between 2006 and 2009, certain aspects of the psychosocial work environment at Danish oncology departments still require attention.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Physicians

DOI

10.3109/0284186X.2012.702926

Reference

Andreassen, C. N., Eriksen, J. G. (2013). The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study. Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), 52 (1), S. 138–146.

The influence of age on the distribution of self-rated health, burnout and their associations with psychosocial work conditions

Cheng, Y., Chen, I-S., Chen, C.-J., Burr, H. & Hasselhorn, H.M.

Abstract

Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) and burnout are commonly used health indicators. This study was designed to examine the age-specific patterns of SRH and burnout and their correlations with self-reported disease symptoms, and to investigate the moderating effects of age on the associations of psychosocial work conditions with these two health measures. Methods: Study subjects were 20,454 male and 16,875 female employees from 2 representative surveys conducted in 2007 and 2010 in Taiwan. SRH was assessed by a single item and burnout was assessed by the general burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). Psychosocial work conditions including working hours, psychological and physical job demands, job control, job insecurity and workplace justice were assessed by a validated questionnaire. Results: Older workers were at higher risk for poor SRH which was correlated with the presence of multiple disease symptoms. In contrast, employees aged 30-40 years had higher burnout which was strongly correlated with emotional disturbance. Among all the examined work factors, low workplace justice was found to be the most predominant predictor for poor SRH and high burnout, and the associations were more profound in younger workers than in older workers. Conclusion: SRH and burnout were differentially related to age, and there were evidences of moderating effects of age on the associations between psychosocial work conditions and health. Researchers and health practitioners should pay attention to the influence of age when using the measures of SRH and burnout as indicators to detect health risk in association with adverse psychosocial work conditions.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Taiwan

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.12.017

Reference

Cheng, Y., Chen, I-S., Chen, C.-J., Burr, H. & Hasselhorn, H.M. (2013). The influence of age on the distribution of self-rated health, burnout and their associations with psychosocial work conditions. Journal of psychosomatic research, 74 (3), S. 213–220.

Does psychological well-being mediate the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and turnover among care workers? A longitudinal analysis

Clausen, T., Hogh, A., Carneiro, I. G., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aim: To investigate whether the psychological well-being of care workers in the Danish eldercare services mediated the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and actual turnover. Background: Research suggests that experiences of acts of offensive behaviour are associated with risk of turnover. However, little is known about the longitudinal associations between experiences of different types of offensive behaviour (threats, violence, bullying, and unwanted sexual attention) and risk of actual turnover. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted among employees in the eldercare services in Denmark. Employees aged 55 or more and non-care staff were excluded from the study. Employees who were working in eldercare at baseline (2005) and no longer worked in eldercare at follow-up (2006) were interviewed through questionnaires. Respondents to this questionnaire were coded as cases of turnover (N = 608) and were compared with employees who had not changed jobs during follow-up (N = 4330). Data on experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and well-being were measured at baseline. Data were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Frequent and occasional experiences of bullying and threats and occasional experiences of unwanted sexual attention at baseline entailed a significantly increased risk of turnover at follow-up. Further analyses showed that psychological well-being significantly reduced the risk of turnover and that well-being partially mediated the association between bullying and turnover and fully mediated the association between threats, unwanted sexual attention, and turnover. Conclusion: Prevention of threats, unwanted sexual attention and - especially - bullying may contribute towards improving well-being and reducing turnover among eldercare staff.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06121.x

Reference

Clausen, T., Hogh, A., Carneiro, I. G., Borg, V. (2013). Does psychological well-being mediate the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and turnover among care workers? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of advanced nursing, 69 (6), S. 1301–1313.

Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes

Clausen, T., Kristiansen, J., Hansen, J. V., Pejtersen, J. H., Burr, H.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods: LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers aged 18–59 who were surveyed in 2005 on exposure to disturbing noise. The risk of LTSA was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of the study population, 4.4 % had LTSA in the 1-year follow-up period. Compared to office workers who were ‘rarely or never’ exposed to disturbing noise at work, office workers who reported being ‘frequently’ exposed to disturbing noise had a significantly increased estimated risk of LTSA when adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and managerial position (HR = 1.90; 95 % CI, 1.12–3.22). After additional adjustment for psychosocial work conditions, the estimated risk of LTSA for office workers who were frequently exposed to disturbing noise became marginally insignificant (HR = 1.73; 95 % CI, 0.99–3.01). A subgroup analysis showed that women who reported being frequently exposed to disturbing noise had a significantly increased estimated risk of LTSA (HR = 1.94; 95 % CI, 1.04–3.64), whereas the corresponding risk for men was insignificant (HR = 1.28; 95 % CI, 0.37–4.41). Conclusions: This study indicates that frequent selfreported exposure to disturbing noise at work is associated with increased risk of LTSA among office workers and that this association may be stronger for women than for men.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Office workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0810-4

Reference

Clausen, T., Kristiansen, J., Hansen, J. V., Pejtersen, J. H., Burr, H. (2013). Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86 (7), S. 729–734.

Work-related Stress and Urinary Catecholamines among Laboratory Technicians

Ghaddar, A., Omar, K. H., Dokmak, M., Kansour, N. A., Jbara, Z., Laham, S., Ali, S.

Abstract

Objectives: Work-related psychosocial hazards are associated with adverse health outcomes among workers. The association between psychosocial hazards and physiological health outcomes among laboratory technicians has not been studied previously. The objective of this study was to measure the association between work-related psychosocial hazards and the level of urinary catecholamines of laboratory technicians. Methods: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 125 workers in one community in Lebanon (response rate 73%) to measure psychosocial hazards. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine in 24-hour urine samples. Results: Sensorial demands, insecurity at work, influence at work and low possibilities of development were particularly high among the workers. Linear regression analysis showed that sensorial and quantitative demands and low possibilities for development increased the levels of urinary catecholamines. Discussion: The results suggest important policy implications for laboratory administrations regarding improvement of the exposure of workers to sensorial and quantitative demands and low possibilities for development as a way to improve worker health.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Lebanon

Occupations

Laboratory technicians

DOI

10.1539/joh.13-0050-FS

Reference

Ghaddar, A., Omar, K. H., Dokmak, M., Kansour, N. A., Jbara, Z., Laham, S., Ali, S. (2013). Work-related Stress and Urinary Catecholamines among Laboratory Technicians. J Occup Health, 55 (5), S. 398–404.

Work-related complaints and diseases of physical therapists - protocol for the establishment of a "Physical Therapist Cohort" (PTC) in Germany

Girbig, M., Deckert, S., Kopkow, C., Latza, U., Dulon, M., Nienhaus, A. et al.

Abstract

Background: Only few studies deal with the workload of physical therapists and the health consequences, although this occupational group is quite important for the health care system in many industrialized countries (e.g. ca. 136 000 people are currently employed as physical therapists in Germany). Therefore, the current state of knowledge of work-related diseases and disorders of physical therapists is insufficient. The aim of the "Physical Therapist Cohort" (PTC) study is to analyze the association between work-related exposures and diseases among physical therapists in Germany. This article describes the protocol of the baseline assessment of the PTC study. Methods/Design: A cross-sectional study will be conducted as baseline assessment and will include a representative random sample of approximately 300 physical therapists employed in Germany (exposure group), and a population-based comparison group (n = 300). The comparison group will comprise a sample of working aged (18–65 years) inhabitants of a German city. Variables of interest will be assessed using a questionnaire manual including questions regarding musculoskeletal, dermal, and infectious diseases and disorders as well as psychosocial exposures, diseases and disorders. In addition to subjective measures, a clinical examination will be used to objectify the questionnaire-based results (n = 50). Discussion: The study, which includes extensive data collection, provides a unique opportunity to study the prospective association of work-related exposures and associated complaints of physical therapists. Baseline results will give first clues with regard to whether and how prevalent main exposures of physiotherapeutic work and typical work areas of physical therapists are associated with the development of work-related diseases. Thereby, this baseline assessment provides the basis for further investigations to examine causal relationships in accordance with a longitudinal design.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physiotherapists

DOI

10.1186/1745-6673-8-34

Reference

Girbig, M., Deckert, S., Kopkow, C., Latza, U., Dulon, M., Nienhaus, A. et al. (2013). Work-related complaints and diseases of physical therapists - protocol for the establishment of a "Physical Therapist Cohort" (PTC) in Germany. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 8 (1), S. 34.

Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers

Gram Quist, H., Christensen, U., Christensen, K. B., Aust, B., Borg, V., Bjorner, J. B.

Abstract

Background: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. Methods: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/− 2 kg/m2) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Results: Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. Conclusion: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-13-43

Reference

Gram Quist, H., Christensen, U., Christensen, K. B., Aust, B., Borg, V., Bjorner, J. B. (2013). Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers. BMC public health, 13, S. 43.

Validation of the German version of the Nurse-Work Instability Scale: baseline survey findings of a prospective study of a cohort of geriatric care workers

Harling, M., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A.,

Abstract

Background: A prospective study of a cohort of nursing staff from nursing homes was undertaken to validate the Nurse-Work Instability Scale (Nurse-WIS). Baseline investigation data was used to test reliability, construct validity and criterion validity. Method: A survey of nursing staff from nursing homes was conducted using a questionnaire containing the Nurse-WIS along with other survey instruments (including SF-12, WAI, SPE). The self-reported number of days’ sick leave taken and if a pension for reduced work capacity was drawn were recorded. The reliability of the scale was checked by item difficulty (P), item discrimination (rjt) and by internal consistency according to Cronbach’s coefficient. The hypotheses for checking construct validity were tested on the basis of correlations. Pearson’s chi-square was used to test concurrent criterion validity; discriminant validity was tested by means of binary logistic regression. Results: 396 persons answered the questionnaire (21.3% response rate). More than 80% were female and mostly work full-time in a rotating shift pattern. Following the test for item discrimination, two items were removed from the Nurse-WIS test. According to Cronbach’s (0.927) the scale provides a high degree of measuring accuracy. All hypotheses and assumptions used to test validity were confirmed: As the Nurse-WIS risk increases, health-related quality of life, work ability and job satisfaction decline. Depressive symptoms and a poor subjective prognosis of earning capacity are also more frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders and impairments of psychological well-being are more frequent. Age also influences the Nurse-WIS result. While 12.0% of those below the age of 35 had an increased risk, the figure for those aged over 55 was 50%. Conclusion: This study is the first validation study of the Nurse-WIS to date. The Nurse-WIS shows good reliability, good validity and a good level of measuring accuracy. It appears to be suitable for recording prevention and rehabilitation needs among health care workers. If, in the follow-up, the Nurse-WIS likewise proves to be a reliable screening instrument with good predictive validity, it could ensure that suitable action is taken at an early stage, thereby helping to counteract early retirement and the anticipated shortage of health care workers.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health, Validation

Country

Germany

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1186/1745-6673-8-33

Reference

Harling, M., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A., (2013). Validation of the German version of the Nurse-Work Instability Scale: baseline survey findings of a prospective study of a cohort of geriatric care workers. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 8 (1), S. 33.

Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116,000 European men and women

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Theorell, T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J. B. et al.

Abstract

Objective To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. Design Meta-analysis of pooled prospective individual participant data from 12 European cohort studies including 116 056 men and women aged 17-70 who were free from cancer at study baseline and were followed-up for a median of 12 years. Work stress was measured and defined as job strain, which was self reported at baseline. Incident cancers (all n=5765, colorectal cancer n=522, lung cancer n=374, breast cancer n=1010, prostate cancer n=865) were ascertained from cancer, hospital admission, and death registers. Data were analysed in each study with Cox regression and the study specific estimates pooled in meta-analyses. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. Results A harmonised measure of work stress, high job strain, was not associated with overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.04) in the multivariable adjusted analyses. Similarly, no association was observed between job strain and the risk of colorectal (1.16, 0.90 to 1.48), lung (1.17, 0.88 to 1.54), breast (0.97, 0.82 to 1.14), or prostate (0.86, 0.68 to 1.09) cancers. There was no clear evidence for an association between the categories of job strain and the risk of cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, at baseline is unlikely to be an important risk factor for colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/bmj.f165

Reference

Heikkila, K., Nyberg, S. T., Theorell, T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J. B. et al. (2013). Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116,000 European men and women. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 346, f165.

Does occupational lifting and carrying among female health care workers contribute to an escalation of pain-day frequency?

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Andersen, L. L.

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate if different frequencies, loads and trunk postures of occupational lifting and carrying increases the risk of sub-chronic (1-30 days last 12 months) low back pain (LBP) to become persistent (>30 days last 12 months) among female health care workers. Methods: Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about occupational lifting or carrying frequency (rarely, occasionally and frequently), load (low: 1-7 kg, moderate: 8-30 kg and heavy: >30 kg) and trunk posture (upright or forward bent back), and days with LBP in 2005 and 2006. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for developing persistent LBP in 2006 from these characteristics of occupational lifting and carrying was investigated with multi-adjusted logistic regressions among female health care workers with sub-chronic LBP (n = 2381) in 2005. Among health care workers with sub-chronic LBP, increased risk of persistent LBP was found from frequently lifting or carrying with forward bent back of moderate loads (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15-2.33) and heavy loads (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.34). No increased risk for LBP to develop into a persistent condition was found for frequent lifting with upright back, frequent lifting or carrying of light loads, or occasionally lifting or carrying of any loads. Conclusions: Preventive initiatives for sub-chronic LBP to develop into a persistent condition ought to focus on reducing frequent lifting and carrying of moderate and heavy loads with forward bent back.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1002/j.1532-2149.2012.00175.x

Reference

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Andersen, L. L. (2013). Does occupational lifting and carrying among female health care workers contribute to an escalation of pain-day frequency?. European journal of pain (London, England), 17 (2), S. 290–296.

Risk for low back pain from different frequencies, load mass and trunk postures of lifting and carrying among female healthcare workers

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Andersen, L. L.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the risk of developing non-chronic and chronic low back pain (LBP) from frequency, load mass and trunk postures of occupational lifting and carrying among female healthcare workers. Methods: A total of 9,847 workers in eldercare answered a questionnaire about occupational lifting and carrying frequency (rarely, occasionally and frequently), load mass (low: 1-7 kg, moderate: 8-30 kg and heavy: >30 kg), trunk posture (upright or forward bent back), and days with LBP in 2005. The odds ratio (OR) for developing non-chronic (1-30 days the last 12 months) and chronic (>30 days the last 12 months) LBP reported in 2006 from these characteristics of occupational lifting and carrying was investigated with multi-adjusted logistic regressions among female healthcare workers without LBP in 2005 (n = 1,612). Results: Frequently lifting and carrying low load mass with forward bent back doubled the risk for developing chronic LBP (OR: 2.14; 95 % CI: 1.02-4.50). Occasionally and frequently lifting or carrying of any load mass with upright back did not increase the risk for chronic LBP. Lifting and carrying did not increase the risk for non-chronic LBP. Conclusions: Preventive initiatives for LBP among healthcare workers ought to pay attention to frequent lifting and carrying of low load mass with forward bent back.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0781-5

Reference

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Andersen, L. L. (2013). Risk for low back pain from different frequencies, load mass and trunk postures of lifting and carrying among female healthcare workers. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86 (4), S. 463–470.

Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Copenhagen Psyco-social Questionnaire Scale

June, K. J., Choi, E. S.

Abstract

Purpose: This study aims to test the validity and criteria-related reliability of the Korean version of the Copenhagen Psyco-social Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ-K) assessing the psychosocial working environment. Methods: The COPSOQ-K was developed through forward-backward translation techniques, and revision based on feedback from focus groups. Survey data were collected from 311 office workers who worked in one workplace. An internal consistency reliability was estimated by Cronbach`s . The impacts of the COPSOQ-K scales on job satisfaction, self-rated health, stress, sleeping troubles, burnout, and sickness absence were analyzed with multiple regression model or multiple logistic regression model, adjusted age and gender using SAS version 9.3. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the COPSOQ-K scales and Korean job stress and its subdomain were identified. Results: Cronbach`s of COPSOQ-K scales was adequate or good (0.66~0.87). The major COPSOQ-K scales predict job satisfaction, self-rated health, stress, sleeping troubles burnout, and sickness absence. The major COPSOQ-K scales were correlated with Korean job stress and its subdomain. Conclusion: The COPSOQ-K scales have satisfactory reliability and criteria-related validity. The COPSOQ-K scales will be useful for the future studies and practices associated with psychosocial working environment.

Year

2013

Study type

Validation

Country

South Korea

Occupations

Office workers

DOI

10.5807/kjohn.2013.22.1.1

Reference

June, K. J., Choi, E. S. (2013). Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Copenhagen Psyco-social Questionnaire Scale. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing, 22 (1), S. 1–12.

Psychosocial work-related predictors and consequences of personal burnout among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities

Kozak, A., Kersten, M., Schillmoller, Z., Nienhaus, A.

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to investigate the potential predictors of personal burnout among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and to investigate whether personal burnout is associated with health and work-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2011 in 30 residential facilities in northern Germany (N=409, response rate 45%). The German standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified factors which were predictive of personal burnout, such as work-privacy conflict (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.03, 1.05), emotional demands (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05), role conflicts (OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.02, 1.03), job insecurity (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and feedback (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). These factors explained 49% of the total variance. Higher levels of personal burnout were significantly correlated with higher rates of intention to leave the job and cognitive stress symptoms (p<.01). Low values of personal burnout were associated with greater job satisfaction, good general health, and higher satisfaction with life (p<.01). The present study indicates that improving the psychosocial work environment at the organizational level may reduce personal burnout and may also diminish unfavorable outcomes, such as intention to leave or job dissatisfaction.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Care workers

DOI

10.1016/j.ridd.2012.07.021

Reference

Kozak, A., Kersten, M., Schillmoller, Z., Nienhaus, A. (2013). Psychosocial work-related predictors and consequences of personal burnout among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 34 (1), S. 102–115.

Gender differences in male- and female-dominated occupations among two age cohorts of the lidA study

Kretschmer, V., Du Prel, J. B., Peter, R., Tophoven, S.

Abstract

Background: The German labour market is highly gender-segregated in two directions horizontal and vertical. Regarding horizontal segregation, in 2009, nearly 49% of men and more than 36% of women worked in a professional group with a gender ratio of 4:1 [1]. Only a small proportion of women and men worked in a gender-balanced profession. According to existing research results male- and female-dominated occupations might be associated with health differences and even with mental disorders [2]. Besides, employees are increasingly faced with work and non-work risk factors for poor mental health (e.g. depressiveness) that can also be traced back to the gender-segregated labour market [3]. In this context, we will examine whether male- and female-dominated occupations are associated with depressiveness. Furthermore, we will investigate whether job characteristics, particularly work-related commitment and stress, and non-work conditions, such as work-family imbalance, mediate the relationship between gender-segregated occupation and depressiveness. Data and Methods: A total of 6,270 employees of the first wave of the lidA-study (leben in der Arbeit) – a German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health – was analysed. A literature based gender ratio for horizontal gender-segregation was used as the independent variable. The dependent variable depressiveness was measured by the simplified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-V). The mediator work-family conflict was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II), psychosocial work stress and overcommitment was recorded by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Additionally, our analysis was adjusted for covariates, in particular the socioeconomic status (e.g. education, income) and age. Mediation analysis is conducted according to Baron and Kenny (1986) [4]. Results: We expect that the relationship between gender-segregation and depressiveness is mediated by work and non-work factors. Discussion: Workplace situation and work tasks of both genders in male- and female-dominated occupations have to be considered. Regarding gender-segregation, for men and women different health outcomes have to be assumed. Concerning domestic obligations, different meanings for both genders should be presumed. In addition, the gender pay gap should be discussed.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1055/s-0033-1354240

Reference

Kretschmer, V., Du Prel, J. B., Peter, R., Tophoven, S. (2013). Gender differences in male- and female-dominated occupations among two age cohorts of the lidA study. Gesundheitswesen, 75 (08/09).

Levels of stress amongst the school teachers in a public school of rural Western Maharashtra

Kunkulol, R. R., Karia, R., Patel, P., David, A.

Abstract

Objectives: Teachers are among the professions reporting highest level of work-related stress, the study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of stress amongst school teachers in a public school of rural western Maharashtra Methods: Prospective survey based study was carried out amongst school teachers of rural western Maharashtra using Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ).The survey was carried out on 3 scheduled visits over a period of 2 months after the Institutional Ethical committee approval. Total 110 Primary and secondary school teachers, satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected for the study. All the questions in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were graded according to 1 (Always-0), 2 (Sometimes-25), 3 (Often-50), 4 (Seldom-75) and 5 (Never-100). The scale value was calculated as the simple average. More the average score less the stress and vice versa Results & Conclusion: Inability to understand the meaning and importance of work, improper clarity about the job, inability to cope with the problems were found to be the factors always contributing to stress of teachers.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

India

Occupations

Teachers

DOI

10.5958/j.2319-5886.2.4.145

Reference

Kunkulol, R. R., Karia, R., Patel, P., David, A. (2013). Levels of stress amongst the school teachers in a public school of rural Western Maharashtra. Inte. Jour. of Medi. Res. & Health Sci., 2 (4), S. 905.

Work-related self-report measures and assessment tools in cancer survivorship: a systematic literature review

Ladehoff, N., Sturm, K., Mehnert, A.

Abstract

Purpose: To systematically review and appraise studies examining self-report questionnaires measuring work-related aspects in cancer patients. Method: Literature search methodology: Searches in Embase, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, PSYNDEXplus Tests and PubMed for the period 1990–2011 were completed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) the questionnaire measures work-related aspects; (ii) the questionnaire has been used in at least one study, which involved cancer patient as a relevant target group; and (iii) articles were written in English or German. Results: Twenty-two articles out of 350 records were reviewed and 13 questionnaires identified. The majority of measures cover several dimensions of work-related aspects representing a variety of work-related experiences and constructs such as aspects of the work environment, demands at work and work-related interpersonal relations. Nine of the 13 questionnaires showed good internal consistency whereas subscales of four instruments had fair or poor internal consistency. For 12 out of 13 measures, validity and reliability were tested in non-cancer populations. Conclusions: The knowledge about reliability and validity of self-report questionnaires measuring work-related aspects in cancer patients is scarce and more high-quality validation studies are needed. Findings further emphasize the need for the development of valid multidimensional measures that are relevant for both research and rehabilitative occupational interventions.

Year

2013

Study type

Litterature review

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.3109/09638288.2012.688921

Reference

Ladehoff, N., Sturm, K., Mehnert, A. (2013). Work-related self-report measures and assessment tools in cancer survivorship: a systematic literature review. Disability and rehabilitation, 35 (2), S. 100–112.

Surgeons' work ability and performance in surgical care: relations between organisational predictors, work engagement and work ability

Mache, S., Danzer, G., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to examine relations and influences between work-related factors, personal resources, work engagement and work ability of surgeons working in German hospitals. Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey investigation. We used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index to evaluate surgeons’ work engagement, working conditions and work ability. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. Results: Surgeons reported a moderate work ability and work engagement. The results indicated significant associations between surgeons’ sources of work engagement, work ability and work-related factors (e.g. job resources). Significant differences regarding these variables were also detected between males and females and the various age groups. Conclusion: The study results reflect the positive effect of supportive working conditions and work engagement on the preservation of work ability, indicating their importance in promoting surgeons’ work ability. Due to the elderly population and the continuing development of health care in Germany, the demand for surgeons increases. These circumstances give reasons for a strong need to preserve and restore surgeons’ work ability. New strategies for training and improving the capacity and performance of surgeons are necessary.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Surgeons

DOI

10.1007/s00423-012-1044-3

Reference

Mache, S., Danzer, G., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A. (2013). Surgeons' work ability and performance in surgical care: relations between organisational predictors, work engagement and work ability. Langenbeck's archives of surgery, 398 (2), S. 317–325.

Antidepressant use and associations with psychosocial work characteristics. A comparative study of Swedish and Danish gainfully employed

Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Madsen, I. E. H., Westerlund, H., Theorell, T., Burr, H., Rugulies, R.

Abstract

Background: Although depression is common, prevalence estimates of antidepressant use among the workforce and undisputed evidence relating psychosocial work characteristics to depression is scarce. This study cross-sectionally assesses the prevalence of antidepressant use among employed in Sweden and Denmark and prospectively examines associations between work characteristics and antidepressant use. Methods: Data on work demands, influence and learning possibilities was collected 2005–2006 from two representative samples of employed aged 20–59 years from Sweden (n=4351) and Denmark (n=8064) and linked to purchases of antidepressants through national prescription drug registries. Standardized 12-month prevalences were calculated. Cox regressions on work characteristics and incident use were performed separately and estimates pooled. Results: Employed Swedish residents had higher standardized prevalence than Danish, 6.0% compared to 5.0%. Working fast and conflicting demands were associated with incident use when estimates were pooled, but adjustment for baseline health attenuated these estimates. Emotionally disturbing situations were related to any incident use, and more strongly to use >179 defined daily dosages/year, even after adjustment for various covariates. Limitations: Statistics based on national prescription drug registries are influenced by, e.g., treatment seeking behaviours and other reasons for prescription than depression. Selective drop-out may also affect prevalence estimates. Conclusions: The study indicates that use of antidepressants among the workforce is relatively high and that employed Swedish residents had higher prevalence of antidepressant use than Danish. Relationships between work characteristics and antidepressant use were, however, similar with emotional demands showing the strongest association, indicating that particular groups of employees may be at increased risk.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden, Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.023

Reference

Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Madsen, I. E. H., Westerlund, H., Theorell, T., Burr, H., Rugulies, R. (2013). Antidepressant use and associations with psychosocial work characteristics. A comparative study of Swedish and Danish gainfully employed. Journal of affective disorders, 149 (1-3), S. 38–45.

Validation of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess professional burnout in Spain

Molinero Ruiz, E., Basart Gomez-Quintero, H., Moncada Lluis, S.

Abstract

Background: The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a public domain questionnaire measuring the degree of psychological fatigue experienced in three subdimensions of Burnout: personal (PB), work-related (WB), and client-related Burnout (CB). The study aimed to examine the acceptability, reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of CBI. Method: The study population consisted of 479 workers of educational centers, social work centres, healthcare centres and workers within the industry sector. Data was collected in 2009 through a self-administered questionnaire including the three CBI scales, sixteen scales of psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ ISTAS21) and perceived general and mental health and vitality (SF-36). Results: Response rate was 78.7%. The three scales have an inter-item correlation average between 0.42 and 0.60 and a corrected item-total correlation between 0,49 and 0,83. The internal consistency of the three scales had Cronbach's α values of 0.90 for PB, 0.83 for WB and 0.82 for CB. Conclusions: Burnout was related to both psychosocial work environment and wellbeing measures in the expected direction and intensity. The items of the three scales show good discrimination capacity, good consistency and homogeneity. The three CBI scales have an acceptable internal consistency reliability index, slightly higher in PB. The discrimination capacity of the scales is verified through the discrimination index and the different levels between occupations and activities. These results demonstrate that the Spanish version of the CBI is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring Burnout.

Year

2013

Study type

Validation

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.4321/S1135-57272013000200006

Reference

Molinero Ruiz, E., Basart Gomez-Quintero, H., Moncada Lluis, S. (2013). Validation of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess professional burnout in Spain. Revista espanola de salud publica, 87 (2), S. 165–179.

Attempts of a Participatory Approach to Helping Improve the Value and Appreciation of Geriatric Nursing in Germany. Looking at the “PflegeWert” Project from an Action Research Perspective

Nick, C., Fuchs-Frohnhofen, P.

Abstract

All collaborations can be characterised by power and participation and how those forces are distributed within the group. Action Research’s distinctive feature is that ‘ordinary’ people are actively involved in the entire research process, as they are entrusted with tasks and take on responsibilities that are otherwise often reserved for researchers (Arieli et al., 2009, p. 265). In this sense, Action Research can be understood as ‘a democratic relationship, in which both sides exercise power and shared control over decision-making as well as interpretation” (ibid). In this paper we try to analyse the relationships and structures of power in a project that dealt with the appreciation of nursing services in geriatric care in Germany, so-called Altenpflege. Consistent with the idea of Action Research, the project was conducted by research partners and practitioners working in geriatric care. In order to take a closer look at the conflicts that took place, and to identify the role of communication in this collaboration of different personalities, three retrospective interviews were conducted. The project’s reflection highlighted that an equitable dialogue between researchers and practitioners can unveil differences and conflicts and help to overcome them. With this paper we intent to encourage more Action Research projects in Germany by reflectively illustrating a successful project with its ‘ups’ and especially its ‘downs’.

Year

2013

Study type

Intervention

Country

Germany

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1688/1861-9916_IJAR_2013_01

Reference

Nick, C., Fuchs-Frohnhofen, P. (2013). Attempts of a Participatory Approach to Helping Improve the Value and Appreciation of Geriatric Nursing in Germany. Looking at the “PflegeWert” Project from an Action Research Perspective. International Journal of Action Research, 9 (1), S. 38–66.

Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of long-term sickness absence in the Danish workforce

Nielsen, M. B. D., Madsen, I. E. H., Bultmann, U., Aust, B., Burr, H., Rugulies, R.

Abstract

Objective: To examine whether effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work predicts onset of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: We measured effort, reward, ERI, and covariates with self-administered questionnaires in a sample of 4775 employees. LTSA during 12-months of follow-up was assessed with a national register. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with Cox proportional hazard models. Results: The HR of LTSA for a one-SD increase in ERI was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.15) in the most-adjusted model. For effort, the HR for a one-SD increase was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.85-1.06) and for reward the HR for a one-SD decrease was 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03-1.26). Conclusions: ERI was not associated with onset of LTSA. Low reward, however, predicted LTSA.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1097/JOM.0b013e31827dba5b

Reference

Nielsen, M. B. D., Madsen, I. E. H., Bultmann, U., Aust, B., Burr, H., Rugulies, R. (2013). Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of long-term sickness absence in the Danish workforce. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 55 (4), S. 454–459.

The Gutenberg Health Study: measuring psychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-related outcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire

Nübling, M., Seidler, A., Garthus-Niegel, S., Latza, Ute., Wagner, M., Hegewald, J. et al.

Abstract

Background: Several instruments have been developed to assess psychosocial workload. We compared two of these instruments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) with regard to congruent validity and internal validity. Methods: This analysis is based on a population-based sample of the baseline examination of 2,783 employees from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). About half of the participants completed the ERI questionnaire (n = 1,342), the other half completed the COPSOQ (n = 1,441). First, the two samples were compared and descriptive analyses were carried out calculating mean values for both instruments in general, then separately for age, gender and main occupational groups. Second, we analyzed the relationship between ERI and COPSOQ scales on the workplace situation and on the workplace outcomes: job satisfaction, general health, burnout, satisfaction with life, by applying stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results and discussion: For the majority of occupations, high effort as reflected by the ERI corresponded with high demands as reflected by the COPSOQ. Comparably, high reward (according to ERI) yielded a good agreement with high "influence and development" (according to COPSOQ). However, we could also find differences between ERI and COPSOQ concerning the intensity of psychosocial workload in some occupations (e.g., physicians/pharmacists or warehouse managers/warehousemen/transport workers). These differences point to differing theoretical concepts of ERI and COPSOQ. When the ability of ERI and COPSOQ was examined to determine the associations with health and work outcomes, burnout could be better predicted by the COPSOQ; this might be due to the fact that COPSOQ comprises the constructs "work-privacy conflict" and "emotional demand", which are closely related to burnout. However, methodological differences between these instruments limit their direct comparability. Conclusions: The ERI and COPSOQ instrument yielded similar results for most occupational groups. The slightly stronger association between psychosocial workload as assessed by COPSOQ and burnout might be explained by its broader approach. The ability of the ERI and COPSOQ instrument to reflect relevant risk factors for clinically manifest disorders (e.g., coronary heart disease) will be derived from subsequent prospective analyses of the GHS with the follow-up data.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-13-538

Reference

Nübling, M., Seidler, A., Garthus-Niegel, S., Latza, Ute., Wagner, M., Hegewald, J. et al. (2013). The Gutenberg Health Study: measuring psychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-related outcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire. BMC public health, 13, S. 538.

Does self-assessed physical capacity predict development of low back pain among health care workers? A 2-year follow-up study

Rasmussen, C. D. N., Jorgensen, M. B., Clausen, T., Andersen, L. L., Stroyer, J., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine the prognostic value of self-assessed physical capacity for the development of low back pain (LBP) among female health care workers without LBP. Summary of Background Data. High physical capacities in terms of strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance are assumed to prevent LBP among persons with high physical work demands. However, the few existing studies investigating this relationship show contrasting findings. Methods. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity in 2004, and days with LBP in 2005 and 2006. The odds ratios (ORs) for developing nonchronic (1–30 d of the past 12 mo) and persistent (>30 d of the past 12 mo) LBP in 2006 from self-assessed physical capacity were investigated with multiadjusted logistic regressions among female health care workers without LBP in 2005 (n = 1612). Results. Health care workers with low and medium physical capacity had increased risk of developing nonchronic LBP (OR = 1.52 [CI = 1.05–2.20] and OR = 1.37 [CI = 1.01–1.84], respectively), and health care workers with low physical capacity had an increased risk of developing persistent LBP (OR = 2.13 [CI = 1.15–3.96]), referencing those with high physical capacity. Conclusion. Self-assessed low physical capacity is a strong predictor for developing nonchronic and persistent LBP among pain-free female health care workers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether increased physical capacity, for example, through exercise training prevents development of LBP among female health care workers.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1097/BRS.0b013e31826981f3

Reference

Rasmussen, C. D. N., Jorgensen, M. B., Clausen, T., Andersen, L. L., Stroyer, J., Holtermann, A. (2013). Does self-assessed physical capacity predict development of low back pain among health care workers? A 2-year follow-up study. Spine, 38 (3), S. 272–276.

Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction? A randomized controlled intervention study

Roessler, K. K., Rugulies, R., Bilberg, R., Andersen, L. L., Zebis, M. K., Sjogaard, G.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief, with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. Results: There was no statistically significant change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). Conclusions: This study does not provide evidence for an effect of a work-site strength-training program on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction.

Year

2013

Study type

Intervention

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Laboratory technicians

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0823-z

Reference

Roessler, K. K., Rugulies, R., Bilberg, R., Andersen, L. L., Zebis, M. K., Sjogaard, G. (2013). Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction? A randomized controlled intervention study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86 (8), S. 861–864.

Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Madsen, I. E. H., Burr, H., Siegrist, J., Bultmann, U.

Abstract

Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. Methods: A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. Results: High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12–4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07–5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72–2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59–2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Conclusion: Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1093/eurpub/cks071

Reference

Rugulies, R., Aust, B., Madsen, I. E. H., Burr, H., Siegrist, J., Bultmann, U. (2013). Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?. European journal of public health, 23 (3), S. 415–420.

Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry

Smith, L. H., Hviid, K., Frydendall, K. B., Flyvholm, M.-A.

Abstract

Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

Year

2013

Study type

Intervention

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Cleaners

DOI

10.3390/ijerph10104996

Reference

Smith, L. H., Hviid, K., Frydendall, K. B., Flyvholm, M.-A. (2013). Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10 (10), S. 4996–5010.

Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study

Stapelfeldt, C. M., Nielsen, C. V., Andersen, N. T., Krane, L., Fleten, N., Borg, V., Jensen, C.

Abstract

Background: It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector. Methods: Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N = 2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0–14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0–2 short, 3–9 short, and mixed spells and 1–3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length. Results: The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0–14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern. Age (= < 40 / >40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1–3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3–9 frequent short-term pattern. Conclusions: Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave pattern. Scores in commitment to the workplace and quality of leadership varied with sick leave pattern and age. Thus, different sick leave measures seem to be associated with different work environment factors. Further studies on these associations may inform interventions to improve occupational health care.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Eldercare

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-13-578

Reference

Stapelfeldt, C. M., Nielsen, C. V., Andersen, N. T., Krane, L., Fleten, N., Borg, V., Jensen, C. (2013). Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 13, S. 578.

Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees

Stenfors, C. U. D., Magnusson Hanson, L., Oxenstierna, G., Theorell, T., Nilsson, L.-G.

Abstract

Background: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders. The associations between quantitative demands and future cognitive complaints were stronger in women. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychosocial working conditions should be taken into account when considering cognitive complaints among employees.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0060637

Reference

Stenfors, C. U. D., Magnusson Hanson, L., Oxenstierna, G., Theorell, T., Nilsson, L.-G. (2013). Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees. PloS one, 8 (4), e60637.

Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study

Stenfors, C. U. D., Marklund, P., Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Theorell, T., Nilsson, L.-G.

Abstract

Background: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0083351

Reference

Stenfors, C. U. D., Marklund, P., Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Theorell, T., Nilsson, L.-G. (2013). Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study. PloS one, 8 (12), e83351.

Prevalence of personal exhaustion in the general population in Germany and its coherences towards further psychosomatic disorders

Stobel-Richter, Y., Daig, I., Brahler, E., Zenger, M.

Abstract

The delineated mental and somatic symptoms in the context of burnout have to be seen as serious health complaints. Exhaustion is one of the symptoms in this context. The present study focuses the prevalence of exhaustion symptoms (assessed with a screeninger for mental wellbeing) in the German general population and the correlation with anxiety and depression as well as further symptoms that co-occur. For this purpose, data of 2 433 persons from a population-based representative sample were analysed. After setting a cut-off point the results reveal that 6% of the population show serious mental impairments, which can be interpreted as a exhaustion prevalence rate. Moreover, the results imply clear relationships of exhaustion and other symptoms as well as mental and somatic impairments and the intake of pharmaceuticals.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1055/s-0032-1331704

Reference

Stobel-Richter, Y., Daig, I., Brahler, E., Zenger, M. (2013). Prevalence of personal exhaustion in the general population in Germany and its coherences towards further psychosomatic disorders. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie, 63 (3-4), S. 109–114.

Factors related to the intention to leave and the decision to resign among newly graduated nurses: a complete survey in a selected prefecture in Japan

Tei-Tominaga, M.

Abstract

Objective: This study examined factors related to the intention to leave and the decision to resign, including individual and psychosocial factors in the work environment, among newly graduated nurses (NGNs). Methods: We distributed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to all NGNs (n = 1,477) in a selected prefecture in Japan. The response rate was 41 %. We used completed female data (n = 493) for analysis. The questionnaire included a scale of the intention to leave, an item related to the decision to resign, psychosocial factors in the work environment (e.g., the Japanese short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, social support, presence of a role model), and individual factors (e.g., psychological distress, cumulative fatigue, job readiness) along with control variables. Results: The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of a role model coincided with the upper quartile of the intention to leave and the decision to resign. Support from supervisors and job readiness showed significant relationships with the upper quartile of the intention to leave; those who received a hospital scholarship showed a significant relationship with the decision to resign. Additionally, psychological distress, inadequate break facilities, and an insufficient amount of permitted rest time were risk factors for the decision to resign, and cumulative fatigue was a risk factor for the upper quartile of the intention to leave. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, while investment in facilities and human capital may have short-term benefits, measures from a long-term perspective are needed for the prevention of future resignations among NGNs.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Japan

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1007/s12199-012-0320-8

Reference

Tei-Tominaga, M. (2013). Factors related to the intention to leave and the decision to resign among newly graduated nurses: a complete survey in a selected prefecture in Japan. Environmental health and preventive medicine, 18 (4), S. 293–305.

A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence

Thorsen, S. V., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Bjorner, J. B.

Abstract

Objectives: The study tested the hypothesis that a one-item workability measure represented an assessment of the fit between resources (the individuals' physical and mental health and functioning) and workplace demands and that this resource/demand fit was a mediator in the prediction of sickness absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence. Methods: Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis with workability as mediator was performed for a binary outcome of sickness absence. The predictors in the analysis were as follows: age, social class, physical health, mental health, number of diagnoses, ergonomic exposures, occupational noise, exposure to risks, social support from supervisor, job control and quantitative demands. Results: High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness absence among men. The mediated part was from 11 to 63 % of the total effect for the significant predictors. Conclusion: Workability mediated health, age, social class and ergonomic exposures in the prediction of sickness absence. The health predictors had the highest association with both workability and sickness absence; physical work environment was higher associated with the outcomes than psychosocial work environment. However, the explanatory value of the predictors for the variance in the model was low.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-012-0807-z

Reference

Thorsen, S. V., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Bjorner, J. B. (2013). A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 86 (7), S. 755–766.

Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

Virtanen, M., Nyberg, S. T., Batty, G. D., Jokela, M., Heikkila, K., Fransson, E. I. et al.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease. Design: A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review. Data sources: We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Embase databases (to October 2012), supplemented by manual searches. Review methods: Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models. Results: The literature search yielded four cohort studies. Together with 13 cohort studies with individual participant data, the meta-analysis comprised up to 174 438 participants with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years and 1892 incident cases of coronary heart disease. Age adjusted relative risk of high versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (<50 v ≥50 years), national unemployment rate, welfare regime, or job insecurity measure. Conclusions: The modest association between perceived job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease is partly attributable to poorer socioeconomic circumstances and less favourable risk factor profiles among people with job insecurity.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

No information

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1136/bmj.f4746

Reference

Virtanen, M., Nyberg, S. T., Batty, G. D., Jokela, M., Heikkila, K., Fransson, E. I. et al. (2013). Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 347, f4746.

Employment precariousness and poor mental health: evidence from Spain on a new social determinant of health

Vives, A., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Muntaner, C. et al.

Abstract

Background. Evidence on the health-damaging effects of precarious employment is limited by the use of one-dimensional approaches focused on employment instability. This study assesses the association between precarious employment and poor mental health using the multidimensional Employment Precariousness Scale. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 5679 temporary and permanent workers from the population-based Psychosocial Factors Survey was carried out in 2004-2005 in Spain. Poor mental health was defined as SF-36 mental health scores below the 25th percentile of the Spanish reference for each respondent’s sex and age. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPRs) of poor mental health across quintiles of employment precariousness (reference: 1st quintile) were calculated with log-binomial regressions, separately for women and men. Results. Crude PPRs showed a gradient association with poor mental health and remained generally unchanged after adjustments for age, immigrant status, socioeconomic position, and previous unemployment. Fully adjusted PPRs for the 5th quintile were 2.54 (95% CI: 1.95–3.31) for women and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.86–2.68) for men. Conclusion. The study finds a gradient association between employment precariousness and poor mental health, which was somewhat stronger among women, suggesting an interaction with gender-related power asymmetries. Further research is needed to strengthen the epidemiological evidence base and to inform labour market policy-making.

Year

2013

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1155/2013/978656

Reference

Vives, A., Amable, M., Ferrer, M., Moncada, S., Llorens, C., Muntaner, C. et al. (2013). Employment precariousness and poor mental health: evidence from Spain on a new social determinant of health. Journal of environmental and public health, 2013, S. 978656.

Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers' health, well-being, work performance and creativity

Bloom, J. De., Kinnunen, U., Korpela, K.

Abstract

Background: The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers' recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. Methods/Design: We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. Discussion: By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general.

Year

2014

Study type

Intervention

Country

Finland

Occupations

Knowledge workers

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-14-488

Reference

Bloom, J. De., Kinnunen, U., Korpela, K. (2014). Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers' health, well-being, work performance and creativity. BMC public health, 14, S. 488.

Occupational accident and disease claims, work-related stress and job satisfaction of physiotherapists

Brattig, B., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A., Peters, C.,

Abstract

Introduction: Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. Method: We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Results: Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Conclusion: Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the health of physiotherapists should be on preventing skin disease, problems of the musculoskeletal system and accidents caused by stumbles and falls.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physiotherapists

DOI

10.1186/s12995-014-0036-3

Reference

Brattig, B., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A., Peters, C., (2014). Occupational accident and disease claims, work-related stress and job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 9 (1), S. 36.

Changes in psychosocial work conditions in Taiwanese employees by gender and age from 2001 to 2010

Cheng, Y., Chen, I-S., Burr, H., Chen, C.-J. & Chiang, T.-L.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine changes in working hours, shift work, psychological and physical job demands, job control and job insecurity in Taiwanese employees by gender and age during the period of 2001 to 2010. Methods: The study subjects were 36,750 men and 27,549 women, aged 25-64, from 4 rounds of cross-sectional surveys of representative employees. Psychosocial work conditions were assessed by a validated questionnaire. Results: Regression analyses with adjustment of education and employment grade showed that from 2001 to 2010, the proportions of workers with long working hours (>48 hours/week) (OR=1.4 in men and 1.5 in women) and workers with short working hours (<40 hours/week) (OR=1.3 in both genders) both increased over time, indicating an increasing polarization in the distribution of working hours. Furthermore, the proportions of nonstandard work shifts (OR=1.7 in men and 2.1 in women) and work with high physical demands (OR=1.5 for both gender) increased. There were signs of decreasing levels of job control from 2001 to 2007, which seemed to be more apparent in younger workers than in older workers. However, a slight recovery in decision latitude and opportunity for learning was noticed in later years. The trend in job insecurity was not linear, with the highest prevalence found in 2004. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that certain aspects of psychosocial work environment had deteriorated in Taiwan. There is a need to raise public awareness about the changing patterns of psychosocial health risks at work as well as their causes and their potential impacts on worker well-being.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Taiwan

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1539/joh.12-0286-OA

Reference

Cheng, Y., Chen, I-S., Burr, H., Chen, C.-J. & Chiang, T.-L. (2014). Changes in psychosocial work conditions in Taiwanese employees by gender and age from 2001 to 2010. Journal of occupational health, 55 (5), S. 323–332.

Do psychosocial job demands and job resources predict long-term sickness absence? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 39,408 individuals in four occupational groups

Clausen, T., Burr, H., Borg, V.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate whether psychosocial job demands (work pace and quantitative demands) and job resources (influence at work and quality of leadership) predict long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than three consecutive weeks in four occupational groups. Methods: Survey data pooling 39,408 respondents were fitted to a national register containing information on payments of sickness absence compensation. Using multi-adjusted Cox regression, respondents were followed for an 18-month follow-up period to assess risk of LTSA. Results: In the entire study population, low and medium levels of influence at work and low quality of leadership predicted a significantly increased risk of LTSA, whereas medium levels of quantitative demands predicted a significantly reduced risk of LTSA. For employees working with clients and for office workers, low and medium influence at work associated with a significantly increased risk of LTSA. For employees working with clients, low quality of leadership predicted a significantly increased risk of LTSA. For manual workers, low influence at work predicted a significantly increased risk of LTSA and medium quantitative demands were associated with a significantly reduced risk of LTSA. For employees working with customers, medium quantitative demands predicted a significantly reduced risk of LTSA. Finally, in predicting LTSA, we found significant interaction effects between job demands and job resources. Conclusions: The study indicates that a lack of job resources--particularly influence at work--are more important predictors of LTSA than high job demands.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0936-7

Reference

Clausen, T., Burr, H., Borg, V. (2014). Do psychosocial job demands and job resources predict long-term sickness absence? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 39,408 individuals in four occupational groups. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 87 (8), S. 909–917.

Do psychosocial work conditions predict risk of disability pensioning? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 40,554 observations

Clausen, T., Burr, H., Borg, V.

Abstract

Aims: To investigate whether high psychosocial job demands (quantitative demands and work pace) and low psychosocial job resources (influence at work and quality of leadership) predicted risk of disability pensioning among employees in four occupational groups--employees working with customers, employees working with clients, office workers and manual workers--in line with the propositions of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Methods: Survey data from 40,554 individuals were fitted to the DREAM register containing information on payments of disability pension. Using multi-adjusted Cox regression, observations were followed in the DREAM-register to assess risk of disability pensioning. Average follow-up time was 5.9 years (SD=3.0). Results: Low levels of influence at work predicted an increased risk of disability pensioning and medium levels of quantitative demands predicted a decreased risk of disability pensioning in the study population. We found significant interaction effects between job demands and job resources as combinations low quality of leadership and high job demands predicted the highest rate of disability pensioning. Further analyses showed some, but no statistically significant, differences between the four occupational groups in the associations between job demands, job resources and risk of disability pensioning. Conclusions: The study showed that psychosocial job demands and job resources predicted risk of disability pensioning. The direction of some of the observed associations countered the expectations of the JD-R model and the findings of the present study therefore imply that associations between job demands, job resources and adverse labour market outcomes are more complex than conceptualised in the JD-R model.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Netherlands

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1177/1403494814527187

Reference

Clausen, T., Burr, H., Borg, V. (2014). Do psychosocial work conditions predict risk of disability pensioning? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 40,554 observations. Scandinavian journal of public health, 42 (4), S. 377–384.

Does affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work predict risk of disability pensioning? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 40,554 observations in four occupational groups

Clausen, T., Burr, H. & Borg, V.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate whether experience of meaning at work (MAW) and affective organizational commitment (AOC) predict risk of disability pensioning in four occupational groups. Methods: Survey data from 40,554 individuals were fitted to a national register (DREAM) containing information on payments of disability pension. Using multi-adjusted Cox-regression, observations were followed in the DREAM-register to assess risk of disability pensioning. Results: Low levels of MAW significantly increased risk of disability pensioning during follow-up referencing high levels of MAW. Respondents with medium levels of AOC had a significantly reduced risk of disability pensioning, when compared to respondents with high levels of AOC. Furthermore, results indicate an interaction effect between AOC and MAW in predicting risk of disability pension. Conclusions: AOC and MAW are significantly associated with risk of disability pensioning. Promoting MAW and managing AOC in contemporary workplaces may contribute towards reducing risk of disability pensioning.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Netherlands

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1002/ajim.22313

Reference

Clausen, T., Burr, H. & Borg, V. (2014). Does affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work predict risk of disability pensioning? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 40,554 observations in four occupational groups. American journal of industrial medicine, 57 (6), S. 709–717.

Dimensional comparability of psychosocial working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires

Formazin, M., Burr, H., Aagestad, C., Tynes, T., Thorsen, S. V., Perkio-Makela, M. et al.

Abstract

Background: In most countries in the EU, national surveys are used to monitor working conditions and health. Since the development processes behind the various surveys are not necessarily theoretical, but certainly practical and political, the extent of similarity among the dimensions covered in these surveys has been unclear. Another interesting question is whether prominent models from scientific research on work and health are present in the surveys – bearing in mind that the primary focus of these surveys is on monitoring status and trends, not on mapping scientific models. Moreover, it is relevant to know which other scales and concepts not stemming from these models have been included in the surveys. The purpose of this paper is to determine (1) the similarity of dimensions covered in the surveys included and (2) the congruence of dimensions of scientific research and of dimensions present in the monitoring systems. Method: Items from surveys representing six European countries and one European wide survey were classified into the dimensions they cover, using a taxonomy agreed upon among all involved partners from the six countries. Results: The classification reveals that there is a large overlap of dimensions, albeit not in the formulation of items, covered in the seven surveys. Among the available items, the two prominent work-stress-models – job-demand-control-support-model (DCS) and effort-reward-imbalance-model (ERI) – are covered in most surveys even though this has not been the primary aim in the compilation of these surveys. In addition, a large variety of items included in the surveillance systems are not part of these models and are – at least partly – used in nearly all surveys. These additional items reflect concepts such as "restructuring", "meaning of work", "emotional demands" and "offensive behaviour/violence & harassment". Conclusions: The overlap of the dimensions being covered in the various questionnaires indicates that the interests of the parties deciding on the questionnaires in the different countries overlap. The large number of dimensions measured in the questionnaires and not being part of the DCS and ERI models is striking. These "new" dimensions could inspire the research community to further investigate their possible health and labour market effects.

Year

2014

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-14-1251

Reference

Formazin, M., Burr, H., Aagestad, C., Tynes, T., Thorsen, S. V., Perkio-Makela, M. et al. (2014). Dimensional comparability of psychosocial working conditions as covered in European monitoring questionnaires. BMC public health, 14, S. 1251.

Face validity of the single work ability item: comparison with objectively measured heart rate reserve over several days

Gupta, N., Jensen, B. S., Sogaard, K., Carneiro, I. G., Christiansen, C. S., Hanisch, C., Holtermann, A.

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. Methods: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18–65 years from the cross-sectional “New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD)” study. The workers reported their single item work ability and completed an aerobic capacity cycling test and objective measurements of heart rate reserve monitored with Actiheart for 3–4 days with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. Results: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = −0.33, P = 0.005), but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431). In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16), and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR and gender was observed (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The observed association between work ability and objectively measured %HRR over several days among male blue-collar workers supports the face validity of the single work ability item. It is a useful and valid measure of the relation between physical work demands and resources among male blue-collar workers. The contrasting association among females needs to be further investigated.

Year

2014

Study type

Validation

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Blue collar workers

DOI

10.3390/ijerph110505333

Reference

Gupta, N., Jensen, B. S., Sogaard, K., Carneiro, I. G., Christiansen, C. S., Hanisch, C., Holtermann, A. (2014). Face validity of the single work ability item: comparison with objectively measured heart rate reserve over several days. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11 (5), S. 5333–5348.

Job strain and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases: individual-participant meta-analysis of 95,000 men and women

Heikkila, K., Madsen, I.E.H., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J.B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Dragano, N., Ferrie, J.E., Knutsson, A., Koskenvuo, M., Koskinen, A., Nielsen, M.L., Nordin, M., Pejtersen, J.H., Pentti, J., Rugulies, R., Oksanen, T., Shipley, M.J., Suominen, S.B., Theorell, T., Vaananen, A., Vahtera, J., Virtanen, M., Westerlund, H., Westerholm, P.J. M., Batty, G.D., Singh-Manoux, A., Kivimaki, M.

Abstract

Background and Aims: Many clinicians, patients and patient advocacy groups believe stress to have a causal role in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, this is not corroborated by clear epidemiological research evidence. We investigated the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95 000 European adults. Methods: We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. Results: Of the 95 379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.48). There was negligible heterogeneity among the study-specific associations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, is not a major risk factor for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0088711

Reference

Heikkila, K., Madsen, I.E.H., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J.B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Dragano, N., Ferrie, J.E., Knutsson, A., Koskenvuo, M., Koskinen, A., Nielsen, M.L., Nordin, M., Pejtersen, J.H., Pentti, J., Rugulies, R., Oksanen, T., Shipley, M.J., Suominen, S.B., Theorell, T., Vaananen, A., Vahtera, J., Virtanen, M., Westerlund, H., Westerholm, P.J. M., Batty, G.D., Singh-Manoux, A., Kivimaki, M. (2014). Job strain and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases: individual-participant meta-analysis of 95,000 men and women. PloS one, 9 (2), e88711.

Job strain and COPD exacerbations: an individual-participant meta-analysis

Heikkila, K., Madsen, I.E.H., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J. B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Knutsson, A. et al.

Abstract

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1183/09031936.00205113

Reference

Heikkila, K., Madsen, I.E.H., Nyberg, S.T., Fransson, E.I., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J. B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Knutsson, A. et al. (2014). Job strain and COPD exacerbations: an individual-participant meta-analysis. The European respiratory journal, 44 (1), S. 247–251.

The Romanian Version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire – Short Report

Iordache, R., Petreanu, V.

Abstract

Work related stress represents a characteristic of the present labour market and a health issue for both workers and organisations with major implications at the level of individuals, companies and society at large. As for Romania, according to statistical data published by the European Foundation for Improving the Working and Life Conditions, almost half of the workers in the active organisations of the Romanian labour market declare that their work is stressful. Although stress at work is claimed both by employers and employees, Romania does not have legislation to regulate explicitly at national, sectorial and enterprise level the safety and health at work policies and promote the wellbeing at work in relation to stress generating risks. Further on, the existing legislation does not specifically regulate the identification, evaluation and monitoring of the stress effects on the physical and mental health state. There are no practical validated instruments to identify, evaluate and monitor stress that can be used at the company level. A tool for the assessment of the psychosocial work environment – The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) – was adapted and validated in Romania in order to develop a standardized method to be used in research of the psychosocial factors and to assess the psychosocial work environment in different work areas in Romania. The main objectives of the study, part of a large ergonomic research, were: to adapt and validate the Romanian version of the COPSOQ. Adapting the original questionnaire and developing the Romanian version proved to be a necessary process, which was based on the translation and back translation method.

Year

2014

Study type

Validation

Country

Romania

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.201

Reference

Iordache, R., Petreanu, V. (2014). The Romanian Version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire – Short Report. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, S. 424–427.

Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

Kersten, M., Kozak, A., Wendeler, D., Paderow, L., Nubling, M., Nienhaus, A.

Abstract

Background: Work in dialysis facilities involves long term contact with chronically ill patients. International comparisons make it clear that dialysis work is being concentrated, staff is being reduced and more patients are being treated. It is more than 20 years since the last German publication on job strains and job satisfaction experienced by dialysis staff was published. The present study examines the stress and strain currently experienced by the staff of German dialysis facilities. Methods: The staff of 20 dialysis facilities were surveyed with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The questionnaire was extended by adding dialysis-specific questions. The data from the dialysis facilities were assessed by comparison with other professions in medical care - nurses and geriatric nurses - using data recorded in the German COPSOQ database. Results: A total of 367 employees took part in the study, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. For almost all psychosocial aspects, the dialysis staff regarded the stress and strain as being more critical than did the geriatric nurses. There were some positive differences in comparison to hospital nursing, including less conflict between work and private life. However, there were also negative differences, such as fewer possibilities of influencing the work. Conclusions: The results of the study show that dialysis work exhibits both positive and negative aspects in comparison with other healthcare professions. The results in the different facilities were highly variable, indicating that the deficits found in the individual scales are not inevitable consequences of working in dialysis in general, but are influenced and might be favourably altered by the individual facilities.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Dialysis facility workers

DOI

10.1186/1745-6673-9-4

Reference

Kersten, M., Kozak, A., Wendeler, D., Paderow, L., Nubling, M., Nienhaus, A. (2014). Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 9 (1), S. 4.

Relationships of organizational social capital with the presence of "gossip and slander," "quarrels and conflicts," sick leave, and poor work ability in nursing homes

Kiss, P., Meester, M. De., Kristensen, T. S., Braeckman, L.

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations of organizational social capital (OSC) with the presence of “gossip and slander,” the presence of “conflicts and quarrels,” sick leave prevalence, and prevalence of poor work ability in frontline working personnel of nursing homes. Methods: A total of 239 subjects (81 % participation), working in 11 different nursing homes, took part in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Following end points were considered, they are as follows: prevalence of “gossip and slander,” “conflicts and quarrels,” sick leave, and poor work ability. Associations with OSC were explored at individual level (binomial log-linear regression analysis) and on group level (Kendall’s tau correlation coefficients). Results: Significant associations were found between OSC and “gossip and slander,” sick leave, and poor work ability, both in the individual- and group-level analyses. The associations showed a higher significance level in the group-level analyses, with the strongest association found between mean OSC of the workplace and the prevalence of poor work ability at the workplace (τ = −0.722; p = 0.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant associations of OSC with three end points that are relevant within the framework of well-being at work in nursing homes. The results are suggestive that OSC should be treated as a characteristic of the entire workplace, rather than as an individually experienced characteristic. The strikingly strong association between OSC and prevalence of poor work ability is suggestive for an important role of OSC within the context of maintaining work ability.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Belgium

Occupations

Nurses, Geriatric helpers, Paramedics, Animation workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0937-6

Reference

Kiss, P., Meester, M. De., Kristensen, T. S., Braeckman, L. (2014). Relationships of organizational social capital with the presence of "gossip and slander," "quarrels and conflicts," sick leave, and poor work ability in nursing homes. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 87 (8), S. 929–936.

Surgeons' work engagement: influencing factors and relations to job and life satisfaction

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G.

Abstract

Work engagement has become a topic of great interest in recent years. However, clinicians' work engagement has rarely been studied and relatively little is known about its predictors and consequences. Therefore the objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to test a model of possible institutional and personal predictors and significant relations to job and life satisfaction.123 clinicians specializing in Surgery Medicine participated in the study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism, were administered. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed.The whole sample of surgeons rated work engagement with a high mean of M = 4.38; SD = .91. Job satisfaction and perceived quality of life have been rated with moderate scores. The results show that job resources have a greater impact on surgeons' work engagement than their job demands. Significant correlations between surgeons' work engagement, their job satisfaction and quality of life were found. Moreover, work engagement mediated the relation between institutional factors and surgeons' job satisfaction.Our research suggests that strengthening surgeons' work engagement will contribute to a more sustainable workplace, in terms of both individual and hospital performance. Therefore, increasing work engagement among surgeons should be of concern for supervisors and hospital managers. Future research should focus on further predictors that may have an influence on health professionals' work engagement. Another field for future research is to study potential effects of interventions on work engagement.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Surgeons

DOI

10.1016/j.surge.2013.11.015

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G. (2014). Surgeons' work engagement: influencing factors and relations to job and life satisfaction. The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland, 12 (4), S. 181–190.

Exploring the impact of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Wanke, E., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G.

Abstract

Background: The German health care system has undergone radical changes in the last decades. These days health care professionals have to face economic demands, high performance pressure as well as high expectations from patients. To ensure high quality medicine and care, highly intrinsic motivated and work engaged health care professionals are strongly needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relations between personal and organizational resources as essential predictors for work engagement of German health care professionals. Methods: This investigation has a cross-sectional questionnaire study design. Participants were a sample of hospital doctors. Personal strengths, working conditions and work engagement were measured by using the SWOPE-K9, COPE Brief Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, COPSOQ and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Significant relations between physicians' personal strengths (e.g. resilience, optimism) and work engagement were evaluated. Work related factors showed to have a significant influence on work engagement. Differences in work engagement were also found with regard to socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: Results demonstrated important relationships between personal and organizational resources and work engagement. Health care management needs to use this information to maintain or develop work engaging job conditions in hospitals as one key factor to ensure quality health care service.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Doctors

DOI

10.3233/WOR-131617

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Wanke, E., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G. (2014). Exploring the impact of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement. Work (Reading, Mass.), 47 (4), S. 491–500.

Does good leadership buffer effects of high emotional demands at work on risk of antidepressant treatment? A prospective study from two Nordic countries

Madsen, I. E. H., Hanson, L. L. M., Rugulies, R., Theorell, T., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Westerlund, H.

Abstract

Purpose: Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects of emotional demands on antidepressant treatment, as an indicator of common mental disorders, are buffered by good leadership. Methods: We used data from two nationally representative work environment studies, the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (n = 6,096) and the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (n = 3,411), which were merged with national registers on antidepressant purchases. All individuals with poor self-reported baseline mental health or antidepressant purchases within 8.7 months before baseline were excluded, and data analysed prospectively. Using Cox regression, we examined hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressants in relation to the joint effects of emotional demands and leadership quality. Buffering was assessed with Rothman’s synergy index. Cohort-specific risk estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis. Results: High emotional demands at work were associated with antidepressant treatment whether quality of leadership was poor (HR = 1.84, 95 % CI 1.32–2.57) or good (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.25–2.31). The synergy index was 0.66 (95 % CI 0.34–1.28). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that good leadership does not substantially ameliorate any effects of emotional demands at work on employee mental health. Further research is needed to identify possible preventive measures for this work environment exposure.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden, Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00127-014-0836-x

Reference

Madsen, I. E. H., Hanson, L. L. M., Rugulies, R., Theorell, T., Burr, H., Diderichsen, F., Westerlund, H. (2014). Does good leadership buffer effects of high emotional demands at work on risk of antidepressant treatment? A prospective study from two Nordic countries. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 49 (8), S. 1209–1218.

Job control and ambulatory blood pressure

Mc Carthy, V. J. C., Perry, I. J., Greiner, B. A.

Abstract

Objective The effect of work on blood pressure (BP) in a general population with appropriate adjustment for confounders is not well defined. High job control has been found to be associated with lower BP and with nocturnal BP dipping. However, with older workers this may be compromised and has not been studied extensively. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a primary care-based sample (N=2047) aged 50–69 years. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors, medication, clinic, and ambulatory blood pressure. Job control was measured using two scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) (possibility for development and influence at work). Nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) dipping was the reduction in SBP from day- to night-time using ambulatory SBP readings. Results In general, BP increased with age, male gender, and higher body mass index. Workers with high influence at work and high possibility for development were more likely to have high asleep SBP [odds ratio (OR) 2.13, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05–4.34, P=0.04], (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.11–4.66, P=0.03) respectively. Influence at work and awake BP were inversely associated: awake SBP (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.35–4.41, P<0.01), awake DBP (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.24–4.72, P=0.01). No association was seen between job control and nocturnal SBP dipping. Conclusion Older workers with high job control may be more at risk of cardiovascular disease resulting from high day- and night-time BP with no evidence of nocturnal dipping.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Ireland

Occupations

General

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.3435

Reference

Mc Carthy, V. J. C., Perry, I. J., Greiner, B. A. (2014). Job control and ambulatory blood pressure. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 40 (5), S. 457–464.

Exploring job satisfaction, role issues, and supervisor support of associate degree nursing program directors

Mintz-Binder, R. D.

Abstract

This article reports findings from a National League for Nursing-funded research study that examined factors in the psychosocial work environment of academic program directors. Vacant nursing academic leadership positions continue to rise and remain unfilled for extensive time periods. No recent study has looked at this issue from a national perspective. An exploratory, descriptive, correlational design with a convenience sample of academic administrators was obtained from NLNAC-accredited programs. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was the primary instrument used in the study. Academic administrators (N = 242; response rate: 41.2 percent) validated concerns of increasing position turnover; 59 percent indicated that they were in their current positions for less than five years. Statistically significant correlations were found between job satisfaction, work/family life, role concerns, social support, and recognition. Proactive interventions are needed to ensure manageable workloads for those in these essential positions.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

United States of America

Occupations

Academic program directors

DOI

10.5480/11-508.1

Reference

Mintz-Binder, R. D. (2014). Exploring job satisfaction, role issues, and supervisor support of associate degree nursing program directors. Nursing education perspectives, 35 (1), S. 43–48.

The copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) in Spain--a tool for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace

Moncada, S., Utzet, M., Molinero, E., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Galtes, A., Navarro, A.

Abstract

To describe the second version of the Spanish Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and to present evidence of its validity and reliability. The original Danish long COPSOQ II questionnaire was adapted to the labor market, cultural, and linguistic setting of Spain and included in the 2010 Spanish Psychosocial Risks Survey. Analysis involved the assessment of psychometric characteristics and associations among psychosocial scales and health scales. Medium and short versions were derived from the long one. The long questionnaire was configured with 24 dimensions (92 items); medium-length questionnaire with 20 dimensions (69 items); and short questionnaire with 14 dimensions (28 items). All scales showed acceptable reliability and concordance between versions. Most associations among psychosocial scales and Mental Health, Stress, and Burnout scales were in the expected direction, except the scale of Influence, that showed some incongruent associations. Results support the validity and reliability of Spanish COPSOQ II questionnaires as tools for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace, however, better scales should be developed specially for the dimension of Influence.

Year

2014

Study type

Validation

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1002/ajim.22238

Reference

Moncada, S., Utzet, M., Molinero, E., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Galtes, A., Navarro, A. (2014). The copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) in Spain--a tool for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace. American journal of industrial medicine, 57 (1), S. 97–107.

Psychosocial strain at work, work-related state of health and the health behaviour of occupational physicians

Nübling, M., Lincke, H.-J., Wahl-Wachendorf, A., Jurkschat, R., Panter, W.

Abstract

Introduction: Dealing with complex situations such as bullying, demographic change and maintaining mental health has brought about a change in the requirements for occupational health physicians. The Professional Association of German Occupational Physicians (VDBW) is concerned about the workplace situation of its members and occupational physicians in general. The VDBW has raised the demand for a health-oriented professional life for its members and is willing to provide support if necessary. Methods: In 2012, the VDBW, in cooperation with the Freiburg Research Centre for Occupational and Social Medicine (FFAS), carried out an empirical study on the situation of approximately 2,300 of its members who are accessible online. As a grant project, F2315, the study was promoted by the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). The basis for the online survey was the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) in the German standard version. Results: 777 occupational health physicians participated in the survey, representing approximately 34% of the VDBW members who were contacted. Favourable working conditions were found in the study in relation to two reference groups from the COPSOQ reference database of FFAS (doctors in hospitals and the average of all professions in Germany). This applies, for example, to the degree of freedom to take vacations and breaks, the potential for professional development and job security. Unfavourable factors included the common notion of working as a "lone warrior”, poor social recognition of the profession and impracticable rules required by law. The health behaviour of the respondents as a whole is above average. Using statistical models (linear regressions), the study is able to show that positive factors can compensate negative work-related influences on health. About half of the respondents wish that the VDBW supports its members in their personal health behaviour and also organises measures for "stress reduction" in particular. Conclusions: The results of the study can be linked to the results of former studies. They show important points of action for the professional association of occupational physicians. In summary, by promoting their own health, the occupational physicians surveyed can be credible messengers of the idea of prevention for the other employees. At the same time, the study can help the VDBW to support its members in developing their professional skills.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Occupational physicians

DOI

10.17147/ASUI.2014-07-04-02

Reference

Nübling, M., Lincke, H.-J., Wahl-Wachendorf, A., Jurkschat, R., Panter, W. (2014). Psychosocial strain at work, work-related state of health and the health behaviour of occupational physicians. ASUI, 2014 (07), S. 512–521.

COPSOQ International Network. Co-operation for research and assessment of psychosocial factors at work

Nübling, M., Burr, H., Moncada, S., Kristensen, T. S.

Abstract

COPSOQ is a comprehensive questionnaire on psychosocial factors at work which is internationally widely used since approx. 10 years for risk assessments in organisations. The International COPSOQ-Network was established in 2009 by scientific and empirical users of the COPSOQ. Main aim is the international scientific exchange concerning the use of COPSOQ. A second goal lies in the coordination of research and further development of the questionnaire (content and measurement qualities), to facilitate international comparison studies.

Year

2014

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.1016/j.phf.2013.12.019

Reference

Nübling, M., Burr, H., Moncada, S., Kristensen, T. S. (2014). COPSOQ International Network. Co-operation for research and assessment of psychosocial factors at work. Public Health Forum, 22 (1).

Influence of lifestyle factors on long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers: a prospective cohort study

Quist, H. G., Thomsen, B. L., Christensen, U., Clausen, T., Holtermann, A., Bjorner, J. B., Andersen, L. L.

Abstract

Background: While previous research has indicated that unhealthy lifestyle is associated with sickness absence, this association may be confounded by occupational class. To avoid this potential confounding, we examined the association between lifestyle factors (smoking, leisure-time physical activity and body mass index) and the occurrence of long-term sickness absence (LTSA; more than three consecutive weeks of registered sickness absence) within a cohort of female health care workers. Methods: A total of 7401 employees filled out a questionnaire about their health behaviour and work environment. Subsequently, they were followed for 12 months in a national register on social transfer payments (DREAM register). Cox’s regression analyses, applied to grouped survival data, were used to estimate the prospective association between these lifestyle factors and LTSA. Results: We found significant associations between all three lifestyle factors and risk of LTSA. The strongest lifestyle factor was current smoking, which increased the risk of LTSA by 35% (95% CI: 1.17-1.54) compared to non- smokers. For body mass index, the risk of LTSA increased with the distance away from 18.5 kg/m2 in either direction (below 18.5 kg/m2: HR: 1.32 per kg/m2; 95% CI. 1.06-1.66; above 18.5 kg/m2: HR: 1.04 per kg/m2; 95% CI: 1.03-1.05). In other words, the more underweight or overweight the women were, the higher the risk of LTSA. A dose–response relationship was found between LTSA and leisure-time physical activity (trend test p-value = 0.01), so that increasing physical activity results in decreasing risk of LTSA. Conclusion: In female healthcare workers, an unhealthy lifestyle (too high/ too low body mass index, smoking, and low physical activity) is associated with higher risk of LTSA.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-14-1084

Reference

Quist, H. G., Thomsen, B. L., Christensen, U., Clausen, T., Holtermann, A., Bjorner, J. B., Andersen, L. L. (2014). Influence of lifestyle factors on long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers: a prospective cohort study. BMC public health, 14, S. 1084.

Psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries

Schütte, S., Chastang, J.-F., Malard, L., Parent-Thirion, A., Vermeylen, G., Niedhammer, I.

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. Methods: The study was based on data from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010 including 33,443 employees, 16,512 men and 16,931 women, from 34 European countries. Well-being was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, role stressors, work hours, job influence and freedom, job promotion, job insecurity, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination and violence at work, and work-life imbalance. The associations between these factors and well-being were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Different models were performed including interaction tests. Results: When all 25 psychosocial work factors were studied simultaneously in the same model with adjustment variables, 13 showed a significant association with poor well-being among both genders: quantitative demands, demands for hiding emotions, low possibilities for development, low meaning of work, low role conflict, low quality of leadership, low social support, low sense of community, job insecurity, low job promotion, work-life imbalance, discrimination, and bullying. The association with low sense of community on poor well-being was particularly strong. Conclusions: A large number of psychosocial work factors were associated with poor well-being. Almost no country and occupational differences were found in these associations. This study gave a first European overview and could be useful to inform cross-national policy debate.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0930-0

Reference

Schütte, S., Chastang, J.-F., Malard, L., Parent-Thirion, A., Vermeylen, G., Niedhammer, I. (2014). Psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 87 (8), S. 897–907.

A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training--IPET--intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

Sjøgaard, G., Justesen, J. B., Murray, M., Dalager, T., Søgaard, K.

Abstract

Background: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion: If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-14-652

Reference

Sjøgaard, G., Justesen, J. B., Murray, M., Dalager, T., Søgaard, K. (2014). A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training--IPET--intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial. BMC public health, 14, S. 652.

Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe

Slany, C., Schutte, S., Chastang, J.-F., Parent-Thirion, A., Vermeylen, G., Niedhammer, I.

Abstract

Background: Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (>7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. Methods: The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. Results: When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Conclusions: Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Europe

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1179/2049396713Y.0000000048

Reference

Slany, C., Schutte, S., Chastang, J.-F., Parent-Thirion, A., Vermeylen, G., Niedhammer, I. (2014). Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe. International journal of occupational and environmental health, 20 (1), S. 16–25.

Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study

Ulhassan, W., Thiele Schwarz, U. V., Thor, J., Westerlund, H.

Abstract

Background: As health care struggles to meet increasing demands with limited resources, Lean has become a popular management approach. It has mainly been studied in relation to health care performance. The empirical evidence as to how Lean affects the psychosocial work environment has been contradictory. This study aims to study the interaction between Lean and the psychosocial work environment using a comprehensive model that takes Lean implementation information, as well as Lean theory and the particular context into consideration. Methods: The psychosocial work environment was measured twice with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) employee survey during Lean implementations on May-June 2010 (T1) (n = 129) and November-December 2011 (T2) (n = 131) at three units (an Emergency Department (ED), Ward-I and Ward-II). Information based on qualitative data analysis of the Lean implementations and context from a previous paper was used to predict expected change patterns in the psychosocial work environment from T1 to T2 and subsequently compared with COPSOQ-data through linear regression analysis. Results: Between T1 and T2, qualitative information showed a well-organized and steady Lean implementation on Ward-I with active employee participation, a partial Lean implementation on Ward-II with employees not seeing a clear need for such an intervention, and deterioration in already implemented Lean activities at ED, due to the declining interest of top management. Quantitative data analysis showed a significant relation between the expected and actual results regarding changes in the psychosocial work environment. Ward-I showed major improvements especially related to job control and social support, ED showed a major decline with some exceptions while Ward-II also showed improvements similar to Ward-I. Conclusions: The results suggest that Lean may have a positive impact on the psychosocial work environment given that it is properly implemented. Also, the psychosocial work environment may even deteriorate if Lean work deteriorates after implementation. Employee managers and researchers should note the importance of employee involvement in the change process. Employee involvement may minimize the intervention's harmful effects on psychosocial work factors. We also found that a multi-method may be suitable for investigating relations between Lean and the psychosocial work environment.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

Nurses, Hospital staff

DOI

10.1186/1472-6963-14-480

Reference

Ulhassan, W., Thiele Schwarz, U. V., Thor, J., Westerlund, H. (2014). Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study. BMC health services research, 14, S. 480.

The changing patterns of psychosocial exposures at work in the south of Europe: Spain as a labor market laboratory

Utzet, M., Moncada, S., Molinero, E., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Navarro, A.

Abstract

Aims: To examine the pattern of psychosocial risk exposures at work among wage-earners in Spain in 2005 and 2010, and to analyze changes in exposure inequalities by gender and job category. Methods: Psychosocial exposures were compared using the COPSOQ-ISTAS21 method, based on two surveys representative of the Spanish wage-earning population (2005 and 2010). Statistical analysis was conducted using correspondence analysis. Results: There was an increase in exposure to high Double Presence, low Social Support, high Work Pace, and high Insecurity about finding a job; and reduction in exposure to high Insecurity about losing a job, and to high Insecurity over worsening of employment conditions. A gender- and occupation-related gradient was maintained. Conclusion: Although this study analyzes wage-earner “survivors” after the outbreak of the current economic crisis, it shows a worsening of harmful exposures to some psychosocial risks. In a context of job destruction, concerns about worsening working conditions appear to be subordinate to insecurity about job loss.

Year

2014

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1002/ajim.22334

Reference

Utzet, M., Moncada, S., Molinero, E., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Navarro, A. (2014). The changing patterns of psychosocial exposures at work in the south of Europe: Spain as a labor market laboratory. American journal of industrial medicine, 57 (9), S. 1032–1042.

Assessment of the psychosocial work environment of professional drivers

Aminian, O., Eftekhari, S., Ghaffari, M., Moinfar, Z., Mirzaaghaee, F., Sadeghniiat, K.

Abstract

Aim: Along with globalization in recent periods, psychosocial risks at the workplace have been classified as considerable developing risks for human mental and physical health. These risks exist both in developed and developing countries. The current study aims to assess the psychosocial work environment of professional drivers in a multidimensional concept. Subject and methods: The study population consisted of 645 Iranian professional drivers. Psychosocial factors were examined in five domains including job demand, job content, interpersonal relationship, work–individual interface and general and mental health through the validated Persian medium-size version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Results: Among 26 psychosocial scales, sensory demands (91.3) and cognitive demands (70.3) got the highest average scores in professional drivers. Logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between psychosocial work environment indexes and self reported health and well being of drivers. This study showed that poor psychosocial work environment in job demand, job content, work–individual interface as well as having a car accident history was associated with unfavorable health outcomes for the participants, after adjustment for age, marital status, education level, vehicle type and smoking. Conclusion: It is worth focusing on drivers’ working schedule and their psychosocial work environment.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Iran

Occupations

Professional drivers

DOI

10.1007/s10389-015-0684-5

Reference

Aminian, O., Eftekhari, S., Ghaffari, M., Moinfar, Z., Mirzaaghaee, F., Sadeghniiat, K. (2015). Assessment of the psychosocial work environment of professional drivers. J Public Health, 23 (6), S. 341–347.

Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

Bergsten, E. L., Mathiassen, S. E., Vingard, E.

Abstract

Objective: Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods: A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results: Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67-7.99) and 2.68 (1.09-6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06-4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05-3.65) and 2.11 (1.08-4.12)). Conclusion: Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

Flight baggage handlers

DOI

10.1155/2015/798042

Reference

Bergsten, E. L., Mathiassen, S. E., Vingard, E. (2015). Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers. BioMed research international, 2015, S. 1–11.

A prospective study on self-assessed mental well-being and work capacity as determinants of all-cause sickness absence

Bertilsson, M., Vaez, M., Waern, M., Ahlborg, G. Jr., Hensing, G.

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to estimate whether self-assessed mental well-being and work capacity determines future sickness absence (SA). Methods: A questionnaire was sent to employed individuals (n = 6,140), aged 19–64 years, who were registered as sick-listed with a new sick-leave spell in 2008. The response rate was 54 %. In this study we included individuals with a single sick-leave spell in 2008 (n = 2,502). The WHO (Ten) Well-Being Index and four dimensions of self-assessed work capacity (knowledge, mental, collaborative, physical) were used as determinants. Future sickness absence was identified through national register in 2009. Outcome was defined as no sickness benefit compensated days (no SBCD) and at least one sickness benefit compensated day (SBCD). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of SBCD. Results: In 2009, 28 % of the women and 22 % of the men had SBCD; the median was 59 and 66 benefit days, respectively. Individuals with low mental well-being had higher odds for SBCD with OR 1.29 (95 % CI 1.01–1.65) in the fully adjusted model. Participants reporting low work capacity in relation to knowledge (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.13–2.13), collaborative (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.03–1.79) and physical (OR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.22–1.86) demands at work had higher odds for SBCD after adjustments for all covariates; no relation was demonstrated with mental work capacity (OR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.76–1.27). Conclusion: Mental well-being and work capacity emerged as determinants of future SA. Screening in health care could facilitate early identification of persons in need of interventions to prevent future SA.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Sweden

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s10926-014-9518-5

Reference

Bertilsson, M., Vaez, M., Waern, M., Ahlborg, G. Jr., Hensing, G. (2015). A prospective study on self-assessed mental well-being and work capacity as determinants of all-cause sickness absence. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 25 (1), S. 52–64.

Employment status, working conditions and depressive symptoms among German employees born in 1959 and 1965

Burr, H., Rauch, A., Rose, U., Tisch, A., Tophoven, S.

Abstract

Purpose: We investigated whether (1) current employment status (regular full-time, regular part-time and marginal employment) is associated with depressive symptoms and (2) whether these associations are mediated by current working conditions and previous employment history. Methods: Two cohorts of German employees aged 46 and 52 years were selected from administrative data of the German Federal Employment Agency and answered questions about depressive symptoms (we use an applied version of BDI-V) and their current working conditions. In addition, the participants gave written consent to link register data regarding their employment histories (n = 4,207). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: Men experienced elevated depressive symptoms when working regular part-time; women experienced such symptoms when engaged in marginal employment. These associations decreased when we adjusted for job insecurity and rose slightly when we adjusted for leadership quality. Men and women who reported a low level of influence at work showed a higher risk of depressive symptoms. For women, the association between current employment position and depressive symptoms could be partly explained by low levels of influence at work. For men, the association between depressive symptoms and current regular part-time employment decreased when we adjusted for previous part-time employment. Conversely, for women, the association with depressive symptoms increased in current regular part-time and marginal employment when we adjusted for employment history. Conclusions: In both genders, the observed associations between depressive symptoms and current employment status were mediated by both current psychosocial conditions and employment history. Employees not having a regular full-time job differed from full-time employees with respect to both their current working conditions and their employment history.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0999-5

Reference

Burr, H., Rauch, A., Rose, U., Tisch, A., Tophoven, S. (2015). Employment status, working conditions and depressive symptoms among German employees born in 1959 and 1965. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88 (6), S. 731–741.

The impact of poor psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence

Catalina-Romero, C., Sainz, J. C., Pastrana-Jimenez, J. I., Garcia-Dieguez, N., Irizar-Munoz, I., Aleixandre-Chiva, J. L. et al.

Abstract

Purpose: We aimed to analyse the impact of psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) among a prospective cohort study, stratified using a random sampling technique. Methods: Psychosocial variables were assessed among 15,643 healthy workers using a brief version of the Spanish adaptation of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. A one year follow-up assessed the total count of NWRSA days. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used for multivariate analyses. Results: After adjusting for covariates, low levels of job control and possibilities for development (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.36 [men]; OR: 1.39 95% CI: 1.09-1.77 [women]), poor social support and quality of leadership (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.50 [men]; OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01-1.63 [women]), and poor rewards (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57 [men]; OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 [women]) predicted a total count of sickness absence greater than zero, in both men and women. Double presence was also significantly associated with NWRSA different than 0, but only among women (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81). Analyses found no association between psychosocial risk factors at work and the total count (i.e., number of days) of sickness absences. Conclusion: The results suggest that work-related psychosocial factors may increase the likelihood of initiating an NWRSA episode, but were not associated with the length of the sickness absence episode. Among our large cohort we observed that some associations were gender-dependent, suggesting that future research should consider gender when designing psychosocial interventions aimed at decreasing sickness absences.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Spain

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.06.009

Reference

Catalina-Romero, C., Sainz, J. C., Pastrana-Jimenez, J. I., Garcia-Dieguez, N., Irizar-Munoz, I., Aleixandre-Chiva, J. L. et al. (2015). The impact of poor psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence. Social science & medicine (, 1982) 138, S. 210–216.

Recommendations for individual participant data meta-analyses on work stressors and health outcomes: comments on IPD-Work Consortium papers

Choi, B. K., Schnall, P., Landsbergis, P., Dobson, M., Ko, S., Gomez-Ortiz, V. et al.

Abstract

The IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis of working populations) Consortium has published several papers on job strain (the combination of low job control and high job demands) based on Karasek’s demand–control model (1) and health-related outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, obesity, diabetes as well as health-related behaviors, utilizing meta-analyses of a pooled database of study participants from 17 European cohorts. An IPD approach has some advantages over typical meta-analyses, eg, having access to all the data for each individual allows for additional analyses, compared to typical meta-analyses. However, such an approach, like other meta-analyses, is not free from errors and biases (2–6) when it is not conducted appropriately. In our review of the IPD-Work Consortium’s (hereafter called the Consortium) publications of the last two years, we have identified and pointed out several conceptual and methodological errors, as well as unsubstantiated conclusions and inappropriate recommendations for worksite public health policies (6–15). However, the Consortium has not yet appropriately addressed many of the issues we have raised. Also several major errors and biases underlying the Consortium IPD meta-analysis publications have not been presented in a comprehensive way, nor have they been discussed widely among work stress researchers. We are concerned that the same errors and biases could be repeated in future IPD Consortium meta-analysis publications as well as by other researchers who are interested in meta-analyses on work stressors and health outcomes. It is possible that the inappropriate interpretations in the Consortium publications, which remained uncorrected to date, may have a negative impact on the international efforts of the work stress research community to improve the health of working populations. Recently, Dr. Töres Theorell, a principal investigator of the Consortium, responded in this journal (16) to some of our criticisms on the Consortium papers (17, 18). The purpose of this article is to discuss the methodological and substantive issues that remain to be resolved and how they could be addressed in future analyses. We provide recommendations for future IPD or typical meta-analyses on work stressors and health outcomes. Finally, we discuss the inappropriate conclusions and recommendations in the Consortium publications and provide alternative recommendations, including a comprehensive perspective on worksite intervention studies.

Year

2015

Study type

Other

Country

Not relevant

Occupations

Not relevant

DOI

10.5271/sjweh.3484

Reference

Choi, B. K., Schnall, P., Landsbergis, P., Dobson, M., Ko, S., Gomez-Ortiz, V. et al. (2015). Recommendations for individual participant data meta-analyses on work stressors and health outcomes: comments on IPD-Work Consortium papers. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 41 (3), S. 299–311.

Working conditions under multiple exposures: A cross-sectional study of private sector administrative workers

Coelho, D. A., Tavares, C. S. D., Lourenco, M. L., Lima, T. M.

Abstract

Background: Office workers are increasingly exposed to physical and psychosocial risk factors. Objective: To assess the association between environmental, physical and organizational working conditions and the physical and psychosocial well-being of a sample of private sector office workers. Methods: Musculoskeletal pain was collected from a body map and the Disabilities of the Arms, Shoulders and Hands questionnaire. The short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire enabled collecting information on six job related satisfaction and dissatisfaction subscales. A checklist for ergonomics in computer work guided the analysis of ergonomic factors and measurements were taken to characterize environmental conditions. Association between exposures and outcomes was calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. Results: Significant moderate positive association was found between dissatisfaction with job psychological demands and musculoskeletal pain in the upper body (0.40; p= 0.05), as well as between postural ergonomic mismatches and dissatisfaction with job insecurity towards the future (0.42; p= 0.04). A significant moderate negative association (-0,47; p= 0.02) was found as well between satisfaction with job social support and with leadership quality and location of the work station in an open-plan office as opposed to smaller office rooms. Conclusions: The results show how raising awareness of the risk factors encountered in contemporary office work is still necessary to promote widespread improvement of working conditions, from both a physical and a psychosocial perspective.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Portugal

Occupations

Office workers

DOI

10.3233/WOR-152025

Reference

Coelho, D. A., Tavares, C. S. D., Lourenco, M. L., Lima, T. M. (2015). Working conditions under multiple exposures: A cross-sectional study of private sector administrative workers. Work (Reading, Mass.), 51 (4), S. 781–789.

Work-family conflict as a mediator in the association between work stress and depressive symptoms: cross-sectional evidence from the German lidA-cohort study

Du Prel, J.-B., Peter, R.

Abstract

Objective: The demographic change leads to a shrinking German work force. Depressive symptoms cause many days absent at work, loss of productivity and early retirement. Therefore, pathways for prevention of depressive symptoms are important for the maintenance of global competitiveness. We investigated the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known association between work stress and depressive symptoms. Methods: A total of 6,339 employees subject to social insurance, born in 1959 or 1965 and randomly drawn from 222 sample points in Germany participated in the first wave of the leben in der Arbeit-study. In the analysis, 5,906 study subjects working in full-time or part-time positions were included. Work stress was measured by effort–reward imbalance ratio, depressive symptoms by the applied Becks depression inventory (BDI-V) and WFC by items of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)-scale. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, education, negative affectivity (PANAS), overcommitment and number of children was performed. Mediation was defined according to the criteria of Baron and Kenny. Results: Work stress was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (BDI-V) in all full-time [ß 1female = 6.61 (95 % CI 3.95–9.27); ß 1male = 8.02 (95 % CI 5.94–10.09)] and female part-time employees [ß 2female = 4.87 (95 % CI 2.16–7.59)]. When controlling for WFC effect, estimates became smaller in men and were even halved in women. WFC was also significantly associated with work stress and depressive symptoms: All criteria for partial mediation between work stress and depressiveness were fulfilled. Conclusions: Prevention of WFC may help to reduce days absent at work and early retirement due to work stress-related depressive symptoms in middle-aged women and men.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0967-0

Reference

Du Prel, J.-B., Peter, R. (2015). Work-family conflict as a mediator in the association between work stress and depressive symptoms: cross-sectional evidence from the German lidA-cohort study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88 (3), S. 359–368.

Quality of Leadership and Workplace Bullying. The Mediating Role of Social Community at Work in a Two-Year Follow-Up Study

Francioli, L., Conway, P. M., Hansen, Å. M., Holten, A.-L., Grynderup, M. B., Persson, R. et al.

Abstract

The theoretical and empirical link between leadership and workplace bullying needs further elaboration. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between quality of leadership and the occurrence of workplace bullying 2 years later. Furthermore, we aim to examine a possible mechanism from leadership to bullying using social community at work as mediator. Using survey data that were collected at two different points in time (2006–2008) among 1664 workers from 60 Danish workplaces, we examined the total, direct and indirect effects between quality of leadership and workplace bullying. Our results indicate that quality of leadership plays a role in establishing working conditions that lead to workplace bullying. Furthermore, social community at work fully mediates the effect of poor quality of leadership on workplace bullying. This longitudinal study adds to previous cross-sectional studies on the substantial role played by leaders in the bullying process. Within the leadership–bullying relationship, social community at work acts as a full mediator, adding a significant contribution to the discussion of mechanisms involved in the bullying process. Plausible explanations of this mechanism and practical implications are discussed.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s10551-015-2996-3

Reference

Francioli, L., Conway, P. M., Hansen, Å. M., Holten, A.-L., Grynderup, M. B., Persson, R. et al. (2015). Quality of Leadership and Workplace Bullying. The Mediating Role of Social Community at Work in a Two-Year Follow-Up Study. J Bus Ethics, 21 (4), S. 438.

Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study

Freimann, T., Merisalu, E.

Abstract

Aim: Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. Results: The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. Conclusions: Work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Estonia

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1177/1403494815579477

Reference

Freimann, T., Merisalu, E. (2015). Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study. Scandinavian journal of public health, 43 (5), S. 447–452.

How psychosocial factors affect well-being of practice assistants at work in general medical care?--a questionnaire survey

Goetz, K., Berger, S., Gavartina, A., Zaroti, S., Szecsenyi, J.

Abstract

Background: Well-being at work is an important aspect of a workforce strategy. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate psychosocial factors and health and work-related outcomes of practices assistants depending on their employment status in general medical practices. Methods: This observational study was based on a questionnaire survey to evaluate psychosocial aspects at work in general medical practices. A standardized questionnaire was used, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Beside descriptive analyses linear regression analyses were performed for each health and work-related outcome scale of the COPSOQ. Results: 586 practice assistants out of 794 respondents (73.8 %) from 234 general medical practices completed the questionnaire. Practice assistants reported the highest scores for the psychosocial factor ‘sense of community’ (mean = 85.9) and the lower score for ‘influence at work’ (mean = 41.2). Moreover, practice assistants who worked part-time rated their psychosocial factors at work and health-related outcomes more positively than full-time employees. Furthermore, the two scales of health related outcomes ‘burnout’ and ‘job satisfaction’ showed strong associations between different psychosocial factors and socio-demographic variables. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors at work influence well-being at work and could be strong risk factors for poor health and work-related outcomes. Effective management of these issues could have an impact on the retention and recruitment of health care staff.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Practice assistants

DOI

10.1186/s12875-015-0366-y

Reference

Goetz, K., Berger, S., Gavartina, A., Zaroti, S., Szecsenyi, J. (2015). How psychosocial factors affect well-being of practice assistants at work in general medical care?--a questionnaire survey. BMC family practice, 16, S. 166.

Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study

Hanson, G. C., Perrin, N. A., Moss, H., Laharnar, N., Glass, N.

Abstract

Background: Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. Methods: We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Results: Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p < .001), depression (p < .001), sleep problems (p < .001), and burnout (p < .001). Confidence in addressing workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. Conclusions: To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

United States of America

Occupations

Home care workers

DOI

10.1186/s12889-014-1340-7

Reference

Hanson, G. C., Perrin, N. A., Moss, H., Laharnar, N., Glass, N. (2015). Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 15, S. 11.

Does rare use of assistive devices during patient handling increase the risk of low back pain? A prospective cohort study among female healthcare workers

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Jorgensen, M. B., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Burdorf, A. et al.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate whether rare use of assistive devices during patient handling increases the respective risk for infrequent and frequent low back pain (LBP) among female healthcare workers reporting to be free of LBP at baseline. Method: Female healthcare workers replied to questionnaires about use of assistive devices during patient handling activities (rarely, occasionally and often) and LBP in both 2005 and 2006. Among those reporting to be free of LBP (0 days the past 12 months) in 2005 (n = 1,478), the multi-adjusted odds ratio for developing infrequent LBP (1–30 days the past 12 months) and frequent LBP (>30 days the past 12 months) in 2006 depending on use of assistive devices was prospectively investigated. Results: The multi-adjusted odds ratio for developing infrequent LBP was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90–1.62) for those occasionally using assistive devices, and 1.78 (95 % CI 1.19–2.66) for those rarely using assistive devices, referencing healthcare workers often using assistive devices during patient handling (p < 0.01 for trend). No associations between use of assistive devices during patient handling and risk of frequent LBP were found. Conclusion: The study indicates that rare use of assistive devices can increase the risk for developing infrequent LBP in female healthcare workers reporting to be free from LBP at baseline.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

Health care workers

DOI

10.1007/s00420-014-0963-4

Reference

Holtermann, A., Clausen, T., Jorgensen, M. B., Aust, B., Mortensen, O. S., Burdorf, A. et al. (2015). Does rare use of assistive devices during patient handling increase the risk of low back pain? A prospective cohort study among female healthcare workers. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88 (3), S. 335–342.

Multigenerational perceptions of the academic work environment in higher education in the United States

Kleinhans, K. A., Chakradhar, K., Muller, S., Waddill, P.

Abstract

The current workforce composition of the academy is comprised of multiple generational cohorts, Traditionalists, Leading Edge Boomers, Trailing Edge Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials. Despite the plethora of research identifying a myriad of differences in the way these generational cohorts approach work and social activities little attention has been paid to their perceptions of the psychosocial aspects of the academic work environment. The present study used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II to assess job perceptions of 434 academic personnel across four generational cohorts. A direct discriminant function analysis revealed Trailing Edge Boomers perceived a greater effort-reward imbalance than Traditionalists/Leading Edge Boomers and Generation Xers, and Millennials perceive less imbalance than all other generations. There were also generational group differences in perceived stress and health. These results draw attention to the value of knowing the generational composition of a higher education institution in order to take into account the unique needs of each generational cohort when planning ways to improve recruitment, retention, and productivity of administrators, faculty and staff.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

United States of America

Occupations

Academic personnel

DOI

10.1007/s10734-014-9825-y

Reference

Kleinhans, K. A., Chakradhar, K., Muller, S., Waddill, P. (2015). Multigenerational perceptions of the academic work environment in higher education in the United States. High Educ, 70 (1), S. 89–103.

Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Risk of Burnout in Child Care Workers - A Cross-Sectional Study

Koch, P., Stranzinger, J., Nienhaus, A., Kozak, A.

Abstract

Objectives: German child care workers' job satisfaction is influenced by the consequences of unfavourable underlying conditions. Child care workers tend to suffer from psychosocial stress, as they feel that their work is undervalued. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the psychosocial factors of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model influence musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and the risk of burnout. To our knowledge this is the first study investigating the association between the factors of the ERI model and MS in child care workers. Methods and Findings: Data from 199 child care workers were examined in a cross-sectional study. Psychosocial factors were recorded with the ERI questionnaire. MS was recorded with the Nordic Questionnaire and risk of burnout with the Personal Burnout scale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear and logistic regression models. The response rate was 57%. In most of the sample (65%), an effort-reward imbalance was observed. 56% of the child care workers were at risk of burnout and 58% reported MS. Factors associated with risk of burnout were subjective noise exposure (OR: 4.4, 95%CI: 1.55–12.29) and overcommitment (OR: 3.4; 95%CI: 1.46–7.75). There were statistically significant associations between MS and overcommitment (low back pain—OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.04–4.51), low control (overall MS OR: 3.8; 95%CI: 1.68–3.37) and risk of burnout (overall MS OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.01–5.28). For ERI no statistically significant associations were found with reference to risk of burnout or MS. Conclusion: Overcommitment in child care workers is related to MS and risk of burnout. There is also evidence that low control is associated with MS and subjective noise exposure with risk of burnout. Effort-reward imbalance is not related to either outcome. This occupational health risk assessment identifies changeable working factors in different types of facilities.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Child care workers

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0140980

Reference

Koch, P., Stranzinger, J., Nienhaus, A., Kozak, A. (2015). Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Risk of Burnout in Child Care Workers - A Cross-Sectional Study. PloS one, 10 (10), e0140980.

Association of perceived job insecurity with ischemic heart disease and antihypertensive medication in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 1990-2010

Latza, U., Rossnagel, K., Hannerz, H., Burr, H., Jankowiak, S., Backe, E.-M.

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effect of job insecurity based on repeated measurements on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and on antihypertensive medication. Methods: The study population consists of 12,559 employees aged 18–59 years of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study. With an open cohort design, data from up to four representative waves were linked to four registers. Poisson regression with time-dependent covariates was used to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with confidence interval (CI) of perceived job insecurity associated with first-time IHD hospitalization or mortality 1991–2010 (n = 561 cases) and incident dispensing of prescribed antihypertensive medications 1996–2010 (n = 2,402 cases). Results: Participants with perceived job insecurity filled more antihypertensive prescriptions (age-, gender-, and calendar year-adjusted RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.12–1.33) and had a borderline significant higher IHD incidence (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.98–1.55). In a subanalysis, the risk of antihypertensive medication dispensed was only significant among employees with worries about both unemployment and poor reemployment opportunities. After explorative stratifications by age, gender, and occupational status, perceived job insecurity was associated with more dispensing of antihypertensive medications to participants less than 50 years of age. Conclusions: In a country with high social security and active labor market policy, employees with the feeling of an insecure job have a modestly increased risk to fill an antihypertensive prescription. Further studies on health risks of job insecurity should consider improved exposure assessment, earlier outcomes such as medication in order to increase statistical power, and identification of vulnerable population groups.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Denmark

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s00420-015-1030-5

Reference

Latza, U., Rossnagel, K., Hannerz, H., Burr, H., Jankowiak, S., Backe, E.-M. (2015). Association of perceived job insecurity with ischemic heart disease and antihypertensive medication in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 1990-2010. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88 (8), S. 1087–1097.

Managing work-family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors

Mache, S., Bernburg, M., Vitzthum, K., Groneberg, D. A., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G.

Abstract

Objectives: This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work–family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Results: Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians’ WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. Conclusions: In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians’ career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physicians

DOI

10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006871

Reference

Mache, S., Bernburg, M., Vitzthum, K., Groneberg, D. A., Klapp, B. F., Danzer, G. (2015). Managing work-family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors. BMJ open, 5 (4), e006871.

High work ability and performance in psychiatric health care services. Associations with organizational, individual and contextual factors

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Continuing development in the German healthcare system has a strong influence on the work situation of hospital clinicians working in Psychiatric Medicine. Since the job demands for psychiatrists are growing, there is a strong need to promote, preserve and restore doctors’ work ability. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatrists’ work ability and to examine relations between work ability, job performance and organizational as wells as individual resources (e.g. work engagement) of doctors working in psychiatric hospitals.The current survey investigation was conducted as a cross-sectional. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index were used to evaluate psychiatrists’ work engagement, working conditions and work ability.Psychiatrists reported high levels of work ability and work engagement. Significant associations have been found between doctors’ sources of work engagement, work ability and organizational factors (e.g. possibilities for development, income, etc.). Moreover, significant differences in gender, age and marital status have been analyzed with regard to perceived work ability scores.The study results reflect the positive effect of supportive working conditions and work engagement on the preservation of psychiatrists’ work ability. Our research suggests that strengthening psychiatrists’ work ability and work engagement will contribute to a more sustainable workplace, in terms of both individual and hospital performance. Innovative strategies for physicians’ personal development and improving capacity and performance of clinicians working in Psychiatric Medicine are strongly required.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

Psychiatrists

DOI

10.1016/j.npbr.2015.03.001

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Groneberg, D. A. (2015). High work ability and performance in psychiatric health care services. Associations with organizational, individual and contextual factors. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, 21 (2), S. 88–95.

Evaluation of a Multicomponent Psychosocial Skill Training Program for Junior Physicians in Their First Year at Work: A Pilot Study

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A.

Abstract

Background: The present study was designed to gather preliminary information regarding the feasibility of implementing a psychosocial resilience program and to assess if the program would potentially promote protective factors (such as resiliency, self-efficacy) and job satisfaction as well as decreasing perceived stress among a sample of German junior physicians. Methods: Eighty-two junior physicians in their first year after graduation took part in the project and were randomized in a controlled trial to either an intervention or a control group for 3 months. The intervention group was offered resilience training combined with cognitive behavioral and solution-focused counseling. Primary outcome measures included scales of the PSQ, BRCS, SWOPE, and COPSOQ. Two post-intervention follow-up measurements proved the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: There was a significant improvement between baseline and follow-up intervention scores on measures of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism, and perceived stress observed in the intervention group compared to the control group. Job satisfaction did not significantly differ between baseline and follow-ups. Conclusions: These results indicate that the program to enhance resilience and decrease stress among physicians is feasible to implement as a group training program in a workplace setting. Further, the intervention provides statistically significant improvement in perceptions of distress and strengthens protective factors (such as resiliency).

Year

2015

Study type

Intervention

Country

Germany

Occupations

Physicians

Reference

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Klapp, B. F., Groneberg, D. A. (2015). Evaluation of a Multicomponent Psychosocial Skill Training Program for Junior Physicians in Their First Year at Work: A Pilot Study. Family medicine, 47 (9), S. 693–698.

Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

Mc Carthy, V. J. C., Perry, I. J., Harrington, J. M., Greiner, B. A.

Abstract

Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years) attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work) were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Ireland

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.09.012

Reference

Mc Carthy, V. J. C., Perry, I. J., Harrington, J. M., Greiner, B. A. (2015). Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics. Preventive medicine reports, 2, S. 812–817.

Psychometric characteristics of the Hungarian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II)

Nistor, K., Ádám, S., Cserháti, Z., Szabó, A., Zakor, T., Stauder, A.

Abstract

Background: Several national and international studies confirmed the negative health effects of work stress. Since 2008, the Hungarian Legislation on Occupational Safety and Health requires the employer to assess and prevent psychosocial risk at work; however, in Hungary, there is no validated tool for assessing psychosocial risk factors which allows for the complex implementation of the Hungarian legislation. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) is suitable for assessing several psychosocial risks and health outcomes; therefore, allows for the complex implementation of the cited legislation. Aims: The cultural and linguistic adaptation as well as the psychometric investigation of the Hungarian version of the COPSOQ II. Method: The sample consisted of 527 individuals (25.9% male, 74.1% female, mean age 35.6±9.9 years). The translation and back-translation process was followed by linguistic validation. Data for the validation were collected via online questionnaires. To test the factor structure of the instrument, exploratory factor analysis was used. The temporal stability of the questionnaire was also assessed. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the COPSOQ II scales with other questionnaires measuring similar constructs: the Effort—Reward Imbalance Inventory (ERI), the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and the WHO Well-Being Index (WBI5). We assessed the association between the COPSOQ II scales and Health outcomes by Spearman’s correlation. Results: Internal reliability of the questionnaire was acceptable, Cronbach-alfa values for all scales ranged between 0.68 and 0.90. The questionnaire proved to have good test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.72—0.90). The COPSOQ II scales showed moderate or strong associations with all the questionnaires used for the cross-validation (r = 0.48—0.75). The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the adapted Hungarian COPSOQ II had four factors: Demands, Work organization and job contents, Collaboration and leadership and Values at workplace. The four factors explained 65% of the total variance. All the COPSOQ II scales showed significant, mostly mid-strong association with the assessed outcome variables. The scales of COPSOQ II showed significant (p < 0.001), mid-strong or low correlation with the COPSOQ II Health outcomes scales. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Hungarian version of the COPSOQ II is a reliable assessment tool with good construct validity and thus suitable for assessing psychosocial risk factors at the workplace.

Year

2015

Study type

Validation

Country

Hungary

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1556/0406.16.2015.2.3

Reference

Nistor, K., Ádám, S., Cserháti, Z., Szabó, A., Zakor, T., Stauder, A. (2015). Psychometric characteristics of the Hungarian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II). Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika, 16 (2), S. 179–207.

The relationship of work-related psychosocial risk factors with depressive symptoms among Hungarian workers: preliminary results of the Hungarian Work Stress Survey

Nistor, K., Nistor, A., Adam, S., Szabo, A., Konkoly Thege, B., Stauder, A.

Abstract

Introduction: Research has shown that psychosocial stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorders. Aim: The present study aims at processing the preliminary results of the Hungarian Survey of Work Stress, concerning the relationship between depressive symptoms and work stress. Methods: Cross-sectional survey among Hungarian workers was carried out (n = 1058, 27.5% man, 72.5% woman, age 37.2 years, SD = 11 years). Psychosocial factors were measured using the COPSOQ II questionnaire, while BDI-9 was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was carried out applying Spearman’s correlation and logistic regression. Results: A quarter of the workers reported moderate or severe symptoms of depression (BDI≥19). The study confirmed the association between depressive symptoms and work-family conflict (OR = 2.21, CI: 1.82–2.68), possibilities for development (OR = 0.76, CI: 0.59–0.97) meaning of work (OR = 0.69, CI: 0.59–0.89) and commitment (OR = 0.60, CI: 0.47–0.78). Conclusion: The results point toward the need of such organizational measures that allow for the reduction of psychosocial stress.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Hungary

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1556/OH.2015.30103

Reference

Nistor, K., Nistor, A., Adam, S., Szabo, A., Konkoly Thege, B., Stauder, A. (2015). The relationship of work-related psychosocial risk factors with depressive symptoms among Hungarian workers: preliminary results of the Hungarian Work Stress Survey. Orvosi hetilap, 156 (11), S. 439–448.

Work-Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses

Nutzi, M., Koch, P., Baur, H., Elfering, A.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in Swiss operating room (OR) nurses, and to investigate how work–family conflict, work interruptions, and influence at work are related to lumbar and cervical back pain. Methods: Participants in this correlational questionnaire study included 116 OR nurses from eight different hospitals in Switzerland. Results: We found that 66% of the OR staff suffered from musculoskeletal problems. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were lumbar (52.7%) and cervical pain (38.4%). Furthermore, 20.5% reported pain in the mid spine region, 20.5% in the knees and legs, and 9.8% in the hands and feet. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work–family conflict (p < 0.05) and interruptions (p < 0.05) significantly predicted lumbar and cervical pain in OR nurses, while influence at work (p < 0.05) only predicted lumbar pain. Conclusion: These results suggest that reducing the work–family conflict and interruptions at work, as well as offering opportunities to influence one's workplace, help to promote OR nurses' health.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Switzerland

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1016/j.shaw.2015.07.011

Reference

Nutzi, M., Koch, P., Baur, H., Elfering, A. (2015). Work-Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses. Safety and health at work, 6 (4), S. 329–337.

Work ability and psychosocial factors among hairdressers workers, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Pacheco Ferreira, A.

Abstract

This study came up with the main objective to inspect psychosocial health and wellbeing factors that affect the work ability of hairdresser. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out in which 106 hairdressers workers were surveyed. To this end, the Work Ability Index (WAI) and Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) questionnaires were administered. The results demonstrate that the sociodemographic variables gender, age and educational attainment are influenced by psychosocial health factors. The average WAI score among workers was 40,7 points (SD=7,2), ranging from 24 to 49 points and the prevalence of good capacity for work was 77,36%. Regarding to the symptoms of stress were obtained in difficulty to think clearly (16,03%), pain or problems in the stomach (13,21%), tension in various muscles (15,1%), difficulty making decisions (13,21%), lack of initiative (8,49%) and tightness or chest pain (9,43%) in respondents. The administrators of beauty salons should be aware of the results obtained with this category of workers so little studied (but very prominent today) to pore in creating an environment conducive to maintaining the work capacity and well-being of hairdressers, mitigating the problems encountered with this study.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Brazil

Occupations

Hairdressers

DOI

10.4067/S0718-24492015000100014

Reference

Pacheco Ferreira, A. (2015). Work ability and psychosocial factors among hairdressers workers, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cienc Trab., 17 (52), S. 83–88.

Prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence by nursing unit and the relationship between violence and the perceived work environment

Park, M., Cho, S.-H., Hong, H.-J.

Abstract

Aims: To identify the prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence against nurses and to examine the relationship of work demands and trust and justice in the workplace with the occurrence of violence. Design: This study employed cross-sectional data from a 2013 nurse survey conducted at a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The study sample included 970 female nurses from 47 nursing units, including general, oncology, intensive care units (ICUs), operating rooms, and outpatient departments. Methods: The second version of the medium-sized Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) was used to measure work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, work pace, and emotional demands), trust and justice, and violence. Relationships among those variables were examined by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses with multilevel modeling. Findings: The 12-month prevalence of verbal abuse (63.8%) was highest, followed by threats of violence (41.6%), physical violence (22.3%), and sexual harassment (19.7%), but bullying had the lowest prevalence (9.7%). Physical violence, threats of violence, and verbal abuse occurred most frequently in ICUs, whereas sexual harassment and bullying were highest in operating rooms. The main perpetrators were patients, followed by physicians and patients' families. Nurses perceiving greater work demands and less trust and justice were more likely to have been exposed to violence. Conclusions: The prevalence and perpetrators of violence varied considerably among nursing units. Greater work demands and less trust and justice were associated with nurses' experiences of violence. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adequate work demands and a trusted and just work environment may reduce violence against nurses. In return, reduction of violence will contribute to creating a better nursing work environment.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

South Korea

Occupations

Nurses

DOI

10.1111/jnu.12112

Reference

Park, M., Cho, S.-H., Hong, H.-J. (2015). Prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence by nursing unit and the relationship between violence and the perceived work environment. Journal of nursing scholarship : an official publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 47 (1), S. 87–95.

Measuring psychosocial exposures: validation of the Persian of the copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (COPSOQ)

Pournik, O., Ghalichi, L., TehraniYazdi, A., Tabatabaee, S. M., Ghaffari, M., Vingard, E.

Abstract

Background: The effect of psychosocial work environment on personal and organizational aspects of employees is well-known; and it is of fundamental importance to have valid tools to evaluate them. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Methods: The questionnaire was translated into Persian and then back translated into English by two translators separately. The wording of the final Persian version was established by comparing the translated versions with the original questionnaire. One hundred three health care workers completed the questionnaire. Chronbach’s alpha was calculated, and factor analysis was performed. Results: Factor analysis revealed acceptable validity for the five contexts of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 in different contexts. Conclusion: This study revealed that the Persian version of COPSOQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring psychosocial factors at work.

Year

2015

Study type

Validation

Country

Iran

Occupations

Health care workers

Reference

Pournik, O., Ghalichi, L., TehraniYazdi, A., Tabatabaee, S. M., Ghaffari, M., Vingard, E. (2015). Measuring psychosocial exposures: validation of the Persian of the copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (COPSOQ). Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 29, S. 221.

lidA–leben in der Arbeit. German cohort study on work, age and health

Rauch, A., Burghardt, A., Eggs, J., Tisch, A., Tophoven, S.

Abstract

The aim of the study “lidA-leben in der Arbeit. German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health” is to provide a database that enables the investigation of the relationship between work, ageing and health. lidA focuses on two birth cohorts of German baby boomers, born in 1959 and 1965. The longitudinal design of the study allows not only the differentiation between age groups but also identification of cohort and period effects. For this purpose, employees of the two cohorts are interviewed repeatedly at intervals of 3 years. The content of the survey is divided into three thematic fields: The first field concentrates on their current work situation and occupation and contains questions on work environment and individual evaluation of job demands. The second thematic field includes a range of questions on the health status of the interviewees. Additionally, a hand-grip strength test is conducted as an objective indicator for long-term development of muscle strength. The last set of survey questions goes into more detail on the household and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. This article gives an overview of the currently available first two waves of the lidA panel survey. The article is structured as follows. After an introduction, the main aims of the study are discussed. The subsequent sections describe the research and sampling design as well as the content of the survey. The paper concludes with an outlook, information on data access and the prospects of future research on the basis of lidA.

Year

2015

Study type

Occupational health

Country

Germany

Occupations

General

DOI

10.1007/s12651-015-0189-2

Reference

Rauch, A., Burghardt, A., Eggs, J., Tisch, A., Tophoven, S. (2015). lidA–leben in der Arbeit. German cohort study on work, age and health. J Labour Market Res, 48 (3), S. 195–202.

Cross-national validation of prognostic models predicting sickness absence and the added value of work environment variables

Roelen, C. A. M., Stapelfeldt, C. M., Heymans, M. W., van Rhenen, W., Labriola, M., Nielsen, C. V. et al.

Abstract

Purpose: To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models’ risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods: 2,562 municipal eldercare workers (95 % women) participated in the Working in Eldercare Survey. Predictor variables were measured by questionnaire at baseline in 2005. Prognostic models were validated for predictions of high (≥30) SA days and high (≥3) SA episodes retrieved from employer records during 1-year follow-up. The accuracy of predictions was assessed by calibration graphs and the ability of the models to discriminate between high- and low-risk workers was investigated by ROC-analysis. The added value of work environment variables was measured with Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). Results: 1,930